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Leviticus



by Ken Cayce



Ken Cayce All rights reserved.


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Book of Leviticus

Leviticus 1:1 says the "the Lord called unto Moses, and spake unto him out of the tabernacle of the congregation" (or tent of meeting"), which reminds one that Leviticus is the sequel to Exodus. Exodus ended with the erection of the tabernacle and God appearing in a cloud over the tent of meeting, the tent at the center of the tabernacle housing the ark and other sacred furniture (Exodus 40:16-38). The laws in Leviticus form part of a historical narrative. They are recorded to show how Israel became the nation it did. They show what was involved in being called to be the people of God. They illustrate how God's covenant purpose to make them "a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation" (Exodus 19:6), was worked out in an all-embracing system of religious services and social law.


As they called the people back to the beginning of human history, they recalled the perfection of God and the perfection of His creation. As the Israelites conformed their lives to the will of God, they would see the difference between their holy God and the gods of the Egyptians and their new pagan neighbors in Canaan. The goal was to let a focus on ritual holiness and perfection draw them ever closer to moral holiness and perfection. By making the perfection of God the focus of their lives, they would be more likely to reflect Him to the Gentile nations.


What the Israelites did not realize is that the law they agreed to pursue would actually serve as a "tutor to bring [them] to Christ, that [they] might be justified by faith" (Gal. 3:24). They would discover that keeping the law would not produce the perfection that God required. The laws of God were perfect, but the people themselves could never be by their own efforts.


Themes: At least four important themes appear in this book that directly relate to the Book of Exodus. Its recording of the Sinai covenant, and the erection of the tabernacle.


The first concept is "the presence of God in Israelite worship", as repeatedly the ceremonies take place "before the Lord". And the food offerings make "a sweet savor unto the Lord" (e.g., 1:9, 13, 17; 2:9; 3:5). This concept extends to all times, even in the mundane duties of life.


Second the concept of holiness in the motto of Leviticus: "Be holy, for I am holy" (11:44-45; 19:2; 20:6). Holy (qadosh), and its cognate terms. For example, "sanctify, holiness", occur 152 times in Leviticus or about 20 percent of the total occurrences in the Old Testament. "Unclean" (tame'), and its cognates occur 132 times, or more than 50 percent of the total Old Testament occurrences. "Clean" (tahor) and related terms occur 74 times, or about 35 percent of the total Old Testament occurrences. "Profane" (ehilel) occurs 14 times in Leviticus out of 66 references in the Old Testament. In addition to these statistics, the language of sacrifice pervades the book. The word "sacrifice" occurs about 40 times, "priest" is found about 190 times, "blood" about 85 times, and "atonement" about 45 times.


The third major concept emphasized is the "role of sacrifice" as (Hebrews 9:22) says. "Almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission". The first 17 chapters in Leviticus are devoted to explaining the occasions for and the correct procedures to the followed in sacrifice.


The fourth area is that of the idea of the "covenant". It is one of the fundamental presuppositions informing the theology of Leviticus. Leviticus is the sequel to Exodus. At the heart of Exodus (chapters 19 to 26), is the Sinai covenant. All that follows in Exodus is a working out of the covenant. Leviticus explains how covenant worship should be conducted (chapters 1 to 17), then how the covenant people should behave (chapters 18 to 25), and closes with a section of blessings and curses, which is entirely appropriate to a covenant document (chapter 26). Indeed, the (last verse of chapter 26), connects all that precedes with Sinai, where the covenant was concluded. "These are the statutes and judgments and laws, which the Lord made between him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses" (26:46).


Historical Setting: The core ideas around which Leviticus develops are the holy character of God and the will of God for Israeli's holiness. God's holiness, mankind's sinfulness, sacrifice and God's presence in the sanctuary are the book's most common themes. With a clear, authoritative tone, the book sets forth instruction toward personal holiness at the urging of God (11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7, 26; compare 1 Peter 1:14-16). Matters pertaining to Israel's life of faith tend to focus on purity in ritual settings, but not to the exclusion of concerns regarding Israel's personal purity. In fact, there is a continuing emphasis on personal holiness in response to the holiness of God (compare this emphasis in chapters 17 to 27). On over 125 occasions, Leviticus indicts mankind for uncleanness and/or instructs on how to be purified. The motive for such holiness is stated in two repeated phrases: "I am the Lord" and "I am holy". These are used over 50 times (see note on 11:44-45).


The theme of the conditional Mosaic Covenant resurfaces throughout the book, but particularly (in chapter 26). This contract for the new nation not only details the consequences for obedience or disobedience to the covenant stipulations, but it does so in a manner scripted for determining Israel's history. One cannot help but recognize prophetic implications in the punishments for disobedience; they sound like the events of the much later Babylonian deportment, captivity, and subsequent return to the land almost 900 years after Moses wrote Leviticus (ca. 738 B.C.). The eschatological implications for Israel's disobedience will not conclude until Messiah comes to introduce His kingdom and end the curses of (Lev. Chapter 26 and Deut. Chapter 28; compare Zech. 14:11).


The 5 sacrifices and offerings were symbolic. Their design was to allow the truly penitent and thankful worshiper to express faith in and love for God by the observance of these rituals. When the heart was not penitent and thankful, God was not pleased with the ritual (compare Amos 5:21-27). The offerings were burnt, symbolizing the worshiper's desire to be purged of sin and sending up the fragrant smoke of true worship to God. The myriad of small details in the execution of the rituals was to teach exactness and precision that would extend to the way the people obeyed the moral and spiritual laws of God and the way they revered every facet of His Word.


The Book of Exodus concludes with the erection of the tabernacle, which was constructed according to the pattern God gave to Moses. How was Israel to use the tabernacle? The instructions in Leviticus answer that question, and were given to Moses during the month and 20 days between the setting up of the tabernacle (Exodus 40:17), and the departure of the people from Sinai (Num. 10:11).


Authorship: Authorship and date issues are resolved by the concluding verse of the book, "These are the commandments which the Lord commanded Moses for the sons of Israel at Mount Sinai" (27:34; compare 7:38; 25:1; 26:46). The fact that God gave these laws to Moses (compare 1:1), appears 56 times in Leviticus' 27 chapters. In addition to recording detailed prescriptions, the book chronicles several historical accounts relating to the laws (see chapters 8 to 10; 24:10-23). The Exodus occurred in 1445 B.C. and the tabernacle was finished one year later (Exodus 40:17). Leviticus picks up the record at that point, probably revealed in the first month (Abib/Nisan), of the second year after the Exodus. The book of Numbers begins after that in the second month (Ziv; compare Num. 1:1).


It is recorded in the book that God revealed His instructions to Moses, but it never states that Moses wrote down what he heard. Thus the book's lack of explicitness about its literary origin is one reason for the great diversity of views among modern scholars. Some liberal scholars want to date the book in the fifth century, about a thousand years after the conservative date for Moses. Four strong arguments support a Mosaic authorship for the book.


The first argument is that the book always presupposes that the laws were given to Moses in the wilderness. Time and again it is said, "The Lord spake unto Moses". The wilderness setting is not only referred to in the introduction to each group of laws, but it is often alluded to in the laws themselves. The sacrifices are offered in the tabernacle, and not in the temple (chapters 1 to 17); lepers must live outside the camp, not outside the city (13:46; and 17:1-9), presupposes that every Israelite is within easy reach of the tabernacle. Also, the land of Canaan is viewed as a future reality where laws are depicted that would apply only to a settled people (14:34; 18:3; 23:10; 25:2).


Second, there is nothing in the book that could not date from the Mosaic period relating to sacrificial systems and elaborate rituals. Many of Israel's neighbors even used the same terms for sacrifice in the fifteenth century B.C. (compare contemporary Ugarit documents from that area).


Third, the book is unsuited to the needs of the post-exilic age. Chapters 18 and 20 deal at length with the question of marriage, but nothing is said about intermarriage with Canaanites, which was the burning issue in Ezra and Nehemiah's time (Ezra 9 and 10; Neh. 13:23-25). The priests of Nehemiah's day seem opposed to reform, whereas Leviticus magnifies the office of high priest. Also the tithe laws indicated about a ratio of 10 Levites to one priest in Leviticus, but (Ezra 8:15), reveals that after the exile there was a great shortage of Levites. The lists in (Ezra 2:36-61 and Nehemiah 7:39-45), suggest a ratio of 12 priests to one Levite among the returning exiles.


Finally, the Book of Ezekiel quotes or alludes to Leviticus many times (compare 10:10 with Ezek. 22:26; compare 18:5 with Ezek. 20:11; compare chapter 26 with Ezek. chapter 34).


Title: The original Hebrew title of this third book of the law is taken from the first word, translated "And He called". Several Old Testament books derive their Hebrew names in the same manner (e.g. Genesis, "In the beginning"; Exodus "now these are the names"). The title "Leviticus" comes from the Latin Vulgate version of the Greek Old Testament (LXX) "Leuitikon" meaning "matters of the Levites" (25:32-33). While the book addresses issues of the Levites' responsibilities, much more significantly, all the priests are instructed in how they are to assist the people in worship, and the people are informed about how to live a holy life. New Testament writers quote the book of Leviticus over 15 times.


Background and Setting: Before the year that Israel camped at Mt. Sinai.


(1) The presence of God's glory had never formally resided among the Israelites;


(2) A central place of worship, like the tabernacle, had never existed;


(3) A structured and regulated set of sacrifices and feasts had not been given; and


(4) A High-Priest, a formal priesthood, and a cadre of tabernacle workers had not been appointed.


As Exodus concluded, features one and two had been accomplished, thereby requiring that elements three and four be inaugurated, which is where Leviticus fits in. (Exodus 19:6), called Israel to be "a kingdom of priests and a holy nation". Leviticus in turn is God's instruction for His newly redeemed people, teaching them how to worship and obey Him.


Israel had, up to that point, only the historical records of the patriarchs from which to gain their knowledge of how to worship and live before their God. Having been slaves for centuries in Egypt, the land of a seemingly infinite number of gods, their concept of worship and the godly life was severely distorted. Their tendency to hold on to polytheism and pagan ritual is witnessed in the wilderness wanderings, e.g., when they worshiped the golden calf (compare Exodus chapter 32). God would not permit them to worship in the ways of their Egyptian neighbors, nor would He tolerate Egyptian ideas about morality and sin. With the instructions in Leviticus, the priests could lead Israel in worship appropriate to the Lord.


Even though the book contains a great deal of law, it is presented in a historical format. Immediately after Moses supervised the construction of the tabernacle, God came in glory to dwell there; this marked the close of the book of Exodus (40:34-38). Leviticus begins with God calling Moses from the tabernacle and ends with God's commands to Moses in the form of binding legislation. Israel's King had occupied His place (the tabernacle), instituted His law, and declared Himself a covenant partner with His subjects.


No geographical movement occurs in the book. The people of Israel stay at the foot of Sinai, the mountain where God came down to give His law (25:1; 26:46; 27:34). They were still there one month later when the record of Numbers began (compare Num. 1:1).


Approaching a Holy God - What it means: Leviticus is very much a how-to book for ceremonies and worship practices within the Old Testament system. But this third book of the Pentateuch also illustrates that God was concerned that His people do what is right, and do it in the right way. Here are its five interlocking themes:


Holiness: Holy and holiness occur in Leviticus more than any other book in the Bible. Leviticus reveals that a God who is set apart from all other "gods" must have a similar people (11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7-8; 1 Peter 1:15-16). The ceremonies detailed in this book are about serving Him as a holy and righteous God, as a God who sanctifies, or "makes holy", His people (20:7-8).


Worship: Approaching a holy God is not a casual undertaking. Dealing with the sin that separates man from God requires sacrifice, which reflects death as the consequence of sin. The payment for sin, through the offering of sacrifices "without blemish" or "defect". The sacrificial system was a lesson concerning the importance and cost of maintaining fellowship with the Holy God (22:17-25); Matt. 5:48).


Law: Leviticus is filled with regulations and ordinances, all of which reveal our inability as humans to be perfect on our own. The Levitical laws would set the stage for laws that would one day be written on the hearts of God's people rather than on stone, replacing external obligation with internal motivation (Jer. 31:33).


Presence: God' willingness to dwell in the midst of a sinful people, camped in Israel in the Holy of Holies in the tabernacle, would be a sign of His forgiveness and grace toward those He redeemed to Himself. It also foreshadowed the day when God would come to "tabernacle" (dwell), among humanity in human flesh and later in human hearts (Matt. 5:8; John 1:14; Heb. 10:22).


Atonement: Sins can be atoned for in the manner of God's choosing (chapters 16 and 17; see 17:11). In our English Bibles the word atonement is found over 50 times in Leviticus, with the basis meaning "to cover", or "to make a covering". Old Testament atonement did not remove sins, but it covered sins until, ultimately, a final sacrifice would be made when the perfect Lamb of God offered Himself once and for all (Heb. 9:1-15, 24-28; 10:1-14).


Because He Is Near - What It Means For You: It was no easy feat for the infant nation of Israel to learn God's ways and become a set-apart people. In fact, they took many wrong turns on the way to the Promised Land. They had to learn the implications of living their lives with a holy God in their midst.


This is true for believers today as well. Even though every Christian has God's Spirit living within, there is need to be reminded of His nearness and cultivate a sense of His presence. Paul wrote that believers should "pray without ceasing" (1 Thess. 5:17). Scripture also urges us to "cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God" (2 Cor. 7:1). Finally, we have the matchless promise that "if we walk in the light as He is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from all sin" (1 John 1:7). The sure knowledge of God's constant presence should not only flood our lives with comfort, but fill us with a healthy dread of offending Him and grieving His Spirit. It should also change the way we deal with one another. As Paul reminded us in (Phil. 4:5), "Let your gentleness be known to all men. The Lord is at hand".





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Leviticus 1 Leviticus 10 Leviticus 19
Leviticus 2 Leviticus 11 Leviticus 20
Leviticus 3 Leviticus 12 Leviticus 21
Leviticus 4 Leviticus 13 Leviticus 22
Leviticus 5
Leviticus 14 Leviticus 23
Leviticus 6 Leviticus 15 Leviticus 24
Leviticus 7 Leviticus 16 Leviticus 25
Leviticus 8 Leviticus 17 Leviticus 26
Leviticus 9 Leviticus 18 Leviticus 27

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Leviticus 1



Leviticus Chapter 1

The book of Leviticus is one of the most important books in the Old Testament. This book is a set of rules that God gave to Moses, so that His Hebrew children could learn how to live pleasing unto God. This book is the third that Moses wrote. It is the third of the Pentateuch (5 books).


These laws, God gave to Moses for the people, are not just religious laws, but civil laws as well. If the people live up to these laws, there would be no need for a king to rule over them. God wanted to fellowship with His people. He made a way for them to approach Him through sacrifice and obedience.


In Leviticus, we see the day to day progression of these Israelites. We will see as long as they worship God, they stay in good standing with Him. It is only when they wander from His instructions that they have trouble.


The Hebrew title of Leviticus is Wayyiqra, which means (and He called). It is also known as the (law of the priests), and the (law of offerings). In the Septuagint, it is titled Leuitikon, which means (that which pertains to the Levites). The name Leviticus indicates that it is connected with the tribe of Levi.


These laws were definitely given to Moses. The Hebrews were camped at the foot of mount Sinai, when Moses received these laws, which would later be called the law of Moses. They covered religious obligations, civil laws, moral laws, and even covered financial and dietary laws. A people could live just by these laws and do very well. God really wanted to be the only King these people needed.


These Levitical laws were given to Moses about one year after the first Passover. It would actually be about the first part of the second year of their wanderings.


In our study here, as in the other studies, we are looking into the spiritual meaning of the Scriptures. We will see types and shadows of Jesus in the offerings and sacrifices. Just as in the book of Hebrews, we see Jesus Christ as our High Priest. He (Jesus), is our perfect sacrifice for all time. Thank goodness we do not have to keep up with all the sacrifices today. It would be a full time job. We see Jesus as the Passover Lamb, we see Him as the Bread, we see Him taking our sin upon His Body, that we might take on His righteousness.


If there is a theme, that we are to partake of in this book of Leviticus, it would be (Be ye holy, for I am holy). God is the holy God. A sinful person cannot approach God. We are allowed to approach Him, when we are covered in the blood of the prefect Lamb, His precious Son Jesus Christ. Only when we are washed in that blood are we allowed to approach the Father. Our life is in the blood of the Lamb. We are partakers of death, until we accept Jesus Christ as our Savior and Lord. He is life. If we are full of Jesus, then we are full of life.


In Leviticus we see God teaching His chosen people how to live up to their being His chosen. We must look carefully at this book. We too, are the called of God. We must learn what is expected of the called of God. This is for all of God's people, but even more so for those called into the ministry. God brought them out of Egypt (the world). Have we really left Egypt (the world), or are we still trying to cling to the world with one hand, and have God with the other? We have to leave Egypt before we can head for the Promised Land.


We can learn the ways of God in this series of lessons, but it is a special thing to be able to walk with God. He fellowships with the pure in heart only.


We sing a praise song that says (Open my eyes Lord, I want to see Jesus. To reach out and touch Him and say that I love Him. Open my ears Lord and help me to listen, open my eyes Lord I want to see Jesus). To understand Leviticus, we must open our heart and let the Holy Spirit tell us the hidden messages contained here.


In these lessons watch for two keys. Access to the Father and the Holiness of God. The word Holy occurs 80 times in this book. God will also establish in this book the special times of worship. Look in each one of these and see Jesus. Offerings and feasts will all be types and shadows of our Lord Jesus. Look for Jesus in the high priest and look for believers in the priests. The symbolic meanings are tremendous in this book.


God is a God of order. In Exodus, He gave instruction for the building of the Tabernacle. Now Moses receives the instructions for the form of worship conducted in the tabernacle. Each sacrifice has a specific purpose. I say one more time, try to see the message God has for us in each of the feasts and sacrifices.


Leviticus 1:1 "And the LORD called unto Moses, and spake unto him out of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying,"


"The Lord called unto Moses": Leviticus begins where Exodus left off. No sooner did the glory cloud come down to rest on the tabernacle in the concluding verses of Exodus, then God instructed Moses with the content in Leviticus. The question of how to use the tabernacle in worship is answered here by an audible voice from the Divine Glory over the ark in the Holy of Holies (compare Exodus 40:34; Num. 7:89; Psalm 80:1).


"Tabernacle of the congregation": This is so named since it was the place where Israel would gather to meet the Lord (compare Exodus 25:8, 22; 26:1-37; and see Exodus chapters 25-32), for a detailed description of the tabernacle.


This very first verse leaves absolutely no doubt who these laws were given to, and no doubt at all who gave them. Lord in the verse above, is Jehovah, which means self existent or eternal One.


Leviticus 1:2 "Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If any man of you bring an offering unto the LORD, ye shall bring your offering of the cattle, [even] of the herd, and of the flock."


"Speak unto the children of Israel": This is essentially revelation with reference to their spiritual life, for all the descendants of Jacob, who was also called Israel (compare Gen. 32:28).


"If any man of you bring": These were completely voluntary and freewill offerings with no specific number or frequency given (1:3). The regulation excluded horses, dogs, pigs, camels, and donkeys, which were used in pagan sacrifices, as well as rabbits, deer, beasts and birds of prey. The sacrifice had to be from the offer's herd or he had to purchase it.


"An offering": The Pharisees manipulated this simple concept so that adult children could selfishly withhold the material goods which would help their parents, under the guise of Corban, that it was dedicated to the Lord (compare Mark 7:8-13).


"Bring an offering": All sacrifices described in this book typically point to Jesus Christ, who gave Himself without spot unto God. They are thus predictive figures called types. Aaron the high priest also typifies Christ, our high priest (Heb. 4:15; 5:4-6; 9:7-14).


"Herd, and of the flock": These terms refer to the cattle (1:3), sheep, or goats (1:10), respectively. Only domestic animals could be sacrificed.


We remember, from the study in Exodus, that the people were so frightened by the voice of God, that they had begged Moses to talk to God for them. The chain was God speaking to Moses and then Moses speaking to the people. The message Moses was to give the people was from God. Moses was just the mouth to bring it. This offering above seems to be a voluntary offering, because of the word [if]. One of the pleasing things that the patriarchs did everywhere they went was build an altar to God. God is pleased when man tries to please Him. We remember in Genesis, that Cain's offering was unacceptable to God, but Abel's offering of the flock was acceptable. Man, worshipping through offerings and sacrifices, was as if he were offering himself to God. The shedding of the blood of the animal symbolized the offering of his life to God.


Leviticus 17:11 "For the life of the flesh [is] in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it [is] the blood [that] maketh an atonement for the soul."


When the sacrifice was burned up, it symbolized the fact that the person sacrificing had totally committed themselves to God. The end result of sacrificing and making offerings is to put ourselves into a closer moral relationship with God. We Christians do this through accepting Jesus as our sacrifice. These Hebrews did it through sacrificing animals. The blood of animals, or even sinful man, could never do away with sin. The only thing it could do was cover it up. The person still had a guilty conscience. The only way to have a clear conscience is to be washed in the blood of Jesus Christ [the Lamb of God].


Hebrews 10:4 "For [it is] not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins."


Leviticus 1:3 "If his offering [be] a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD."


The concept of a "burnt sacrifice" is presented first for significant reasons. It expressed "dedication". The term means "that which ascends", that is, to Yahweh. The entire sacrifice was consumed by fire on the altar, so that it was also described as the "whole burnt offering". Of the other sacrifices, part was burned and part was eaten by the priests or even by the offeror himself; but all the burnt offering ascended to God in flame and smoke. Thus, the Israelite was taught that entire consecration is essential to true worship. The offerings were graded in value so that even the poorest worshipers who were conscious of their spiritual need might find access to God by coming in complete devotion. The offering was to be "a male without blemish", indicating we are to bring the best we have to Him. The phrase "of his own voluntary will" is best translated "that he may be accepted". The proper place to offer the sacrifice was "at the door of the tabernacle", that is, in the court near the brazen altar, not at home or elsewhere.


This burnt sacrifice, as we said before, symbolizes the total commitment of the person sacrificing. This is to be done of their own free will, not of obligation. Salvation is offered to everyone, but we must accept Jesus as our Savior and Lord of our own free will. God does not require it of us. It is our decision whether we commit our life to God or not. The reason this is a male without blemish is because it is a type and shadow of Jesus (the Lamb of God). It shows the sin free (without blemish), life of Jesus. It was offered at the door of the tabernacle, because the first step to salvation is repentance. Just inside the door was the bronze altar. Bronze symbolizes judgement. We are all guilty of sin, before we repent and accept Jesus as our substitute for our sin. The person bringing this animal for sacrifice was placing his guilt on the head of this animal. The blood that was shed symbolized turning his life over to God. The key here is he came to God of his own free will. The blood sacrifice and the burning of the animal, showed his dedication to God.


Leviticus Chapter 1 Questions


1. The book of Leviticus is a book of ______ that God gave Moses.


2. Who wrote Leviticus?


3. What are the five books of Moses called?


4. If the people live up to these laws, there will be no need for what?


5. God made a way for them to approach Him through what 2 things?


6. When do God's people get into trouble?


7. What is the Hebrew title of Leviticus?


8. What is another name it is known by?


9. The name Leviticus indicates that it is connected with what tribe?


10. Where were they camped when God gave these laws to Moses?


11. What different things did these laws cover?


12. Who did God want to be Israel's King?


13. At what time were these laws given to Moses?


14. We will see types and shadows of Jesus in the _____________and ____________.


15. In the book of Hebrews, we saw Jesus as whom?


16. Name at least 3 things we will see Jesus as in Leviticus?


17. What does the author believe is the theme of Leviticus for believers?


18. How is the only way that we can approach Father God?


19. Our life is in the _______ of the Lamb.


20. What are we partakers of before we accept Jesus as our Savior?


21. If we are full of Jesus, we are full of ______.


22. What is God teaching His chosen people in Leviticus?


23. Have you and I really left Egypt "the world"?


24. What must we do before we can head for the Promised Land?


25. Who are the only people God fellowships with?


26. What must we do to really know what God is saying to us in Leviticus?


27. What 2 keys are we to watch for in Leviticus?


28. How many times does the word holy appear in Leviticus?


29. Offerings and feasts are all what?


30. What lets us know that God is the God of order here?


31. Where did God call to Moses from?


32. What root word did Lord come from in verse 1?


33. What does the name mean?


34. Why were the people not hearing from God direct?


35. What one word in verse 2 lets us know this is a voluntary offering?


36. What did the patriarchs do everywhere they went that pleased God?


37. What did the blood of the animal being shed symbolize for the one who was sacrificing?


38. When the sacrifice was totally burned up, what did it symbolize?


39. What was the desired end result of sacrificing and offerings?


40. What is the only thing that can clear the conscience of man?


41. Why must this offering in verse 3 be a male?


42. Why must it be without blemish?


43. Why was it important that it be a freewill offering?


44. Why did he place his hand on the head of the animal he was about to kill?




Leviticus Chapter 1 Continued

Leviticus 1:4 "And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him."


"Put his hand upon the head": This symbolic gesture pictured the transfer of the sacrificers sin to the sacrificial animal and was likely done with a prayer of repentance and request for forgiveness (compare Psalm 51:18-19).


"Make atonement" The word means "cover". The psalmist defines it by saying, "Blessed is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered" (Psalm 32:1). Theologically, the "atonement" of the Old Testament covered sin only temporarily, but it did not eliminate sin or later judgment (Heb. 10:4). The one time sacrifice of Jesus Christ fully atoned for sin, thus satisfying God's wrath forever and insuring eternal salvation (compare Heb. 9:12; 1 John 2:2). Even to those who put saving faith in God for their redemption before Christ's death on the cross (compare Rom. 3:25-26; Heb. 9:15).


"For him": This was a substitutionary sacrifice that prefigured the ultimate substitute, Jesus Christ (compare Isaiah Chapter 53, see note on 2 Cor. 5:21).


When the person making the offering puts his hand on the animal's head, it is as if he is placing his sin on the animal. This is exactly what happened when Jesus took our sin upon His body on the cross. In both instances, there is a substitute for the real sinner. Atonement is an interesting word. It means (to cover). It also means to cancel. The difference in the animal's blood being shed for the sin of the person and Jesus shedding His blood for our sin, is covered in these meanings. The animal's blood cannot do away with sin; it can only cover sin. The sin is still there, just covered by the blood. There cannot be a clear conscience following. In the case of the blood of Jesus, His blood cancels our sin out. There is no longer any sin and we have a clear conscience toward God.


Hebrews 10:4 "For [it is] not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins."


Jesus took our sin upon His body on the cross that we might take His righteousness on. The most beautiful statement in verse 4 above is (it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him). Praise God, He accepted the substitute, and there is no need for further sacrifice for our sin. Jesus paid it all.


Leviticus 1:5 "And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall bring the blood, and sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar that [is by] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation."


"He shall kill": Making vivid and dramatic the consequences of sin, the person offering the sacrifice killed and butchered the animal (compare verse 6).


"Aaron's sons": This refers to the immediate descendants of Aaron, i.e., Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar (compare Exodus 28:1). In the beginning, there were 5 priests, including Aaron, who served as the High-Priest.


"Sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar": The slaying of the animal set forth symbolically the transfer of sin and guilt from the offeror to the sacrifice itself. The animal bore the penalty for sin, for "the wages of sin is death" (Rom. 6:23). The sacrifices represented the final and efficacious sacrifice of Jesus, shedding His blood to make full and complete atonement for sin (see Psalm. 40:6).


We look at the killing of this animal and realize it was necessary to reconcile the person to God. Without the shedding of blood there is no remission for sin.


Hebrews 9:22 "And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission."


The first step into salvation is repenting of sin. Just inside the door of the tabernacle was the brazen altar. This brazen altar was the altar symbolizing judgement, since it was made of bronze. We must first realize we are guilty of sin and then ask forgiveness for the sin on the way to God. The life is in the blood. This blood must flow to bring us life.


Leviticus 17:11 "For the life of the flesh [is] in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it [is] the blood [that] maketh an atonement for the soul."


1 John 1:7 "But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin."


Leviticus 1:6 "And he shall flay the burnt offering, and cut it into his pieces."


Flay in the verse above, means to spread out hostilely or to strip. The entire burnt offering symbolized what the Father God does to sin. God the Father cannot look upon sin; His wrath burns it up. This is why at one moment during the crucifixion, Jesus cried out to the Father, "Why hast thou forsaken Me"? At that moment that Jesus symbolically took the sin of the entire world upon His body, the Father turned away. This shows God the Father cannot look upon sin, without totally burning it up. Jesus became the perfect sacrifice for sin at the shedding of His blood. From this day forward there was to never be any more sacrificing in the world. Jesus' sacrifice was sufficient for all time for everyone. I believe this is why God allowed the temple in Jerusalem to be destroyed, to stop the sacrificing of animals. Jesus was flayed for believers.


Leviticus 1:7 "And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay the wood in order upon the fire:"


The priests are to put the fire upon the altar, because they offered the sacrifice upon the altar. This applies to the first burnt offering which was offered upon the newly-erected altar, since afterwards the fire was always burning, and was never allowed to go out (Lev. 6:13).


"And lay the wood": No other fuel but wood was allowed for the altar, and no one was allowed to bring it from his own house, but it had to be the wood of the congregation (compare Neh. 10:34; 13:31). It had to be of the best kind; worm-eaten wood or timber from pulled-down buildings was not allowed.


Not even the high priest would eat of the meat of this offering. This animal was to be totally consumed by the fire.


Leviticus 1:8 "And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the wood that [is] on the fire which [is] upon the altar:"


"The fire which is upon the altar": Fire usually indicates wrath, judgment, and punishment. The fire here suggests the consuming wrath of God that comes upon the animal and not the offeror. That the bullock was totally consumed teaches that Christ's sacrifice completely satisfied the demands of divine justice.


Again, here, we see that even the meat must be placed exactly in order. The fat was for a sweet smelling savor to the Lord.


Leviticus 1:9 "But his inwards and his legs shall he wash in water: and the priest shall burn all on the altar, [to be] a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD."


"Wash": This allowed the one sacrificing to cleanse the animal of excrement and thus make it clean.


"A sweet savor": The pleasant smell of burning meat signified the sacrifice of obedience which was pleasing to the Lord. While the costly ritual recognized God's anger for sin committed (compare 1:13, 17), the penitent heart behind the sacrifice made it acceptable. That was far more significant than the sacrifice itself (compare Gen. 8:21; 1 Sam. 15:23). This is the first of 3 freewill offerings to please the Lord. Compare the grain offering (2:2) and the peace offering (3:5).


This indicated God's satisfaction with the offerings and the propitiation for sin that He accepted, thus satisfying and placating the righteous judgment and wrath of God. They pointed typically to the redemptive work of Christ, whose personal sacrifice to the Father was a "sweet aroma" that satisfied the righteous judgment of God upon sin.


This washing just shows that God will not accept an unclean offering. Ministers today could take a lesson from this. Of course, this entire offering symbolizes Christ's sacrifice for us.


Leviticus 1:10 "And if his offering [be] of the flocks, [namely], of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt sacrifice; he shall bring it a male without blemish."


"Sheep, or of the goats ... a male without blemish": A sheep or lamb without blemish typified the perfection and submission without objection that our Lord manifested, as He was "brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and ... openeth not his mouth" (Isa. 53:7).


The importance of this being a male, is because it symbolized the offering Jesus made, and Jesus was of male gender in His flesh on the earth. The lamb must be a male, young enough not to have been with a female. It was to be without blemish. The very reason that Jesus' legs were not broken on the cross was to fulfill the Scripture of having no broken bones.


John 19:36 "For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken."


Another Scripture shows the necessity of not breaking a bone of the offering.


Numbers 9:12 "They shall leave none of it unto the morning, nor break any bone of it: according to all the ordinances of the passover they shall keep it."


This offering was to be burned completely up. No one was to eat any of it. God the Father cannot look upon sin; He will burn it up. This is the symbolism seen here. The burnt sacrifice was sacrificed right inside the door of the outer court of the tabernacle. The way to God is indicated by doing this. The first step a person must make on the way to God, is realize they are a sinner, and repent. When we do this, the next step is to transfer our sin over to Jesus, by accepting Him as our perfect sacrifice. It is no longer necessary to pay for our sin with our own blood. He (Jesus), shed His blood for us. He became our substitute when He took our sin upon His body on the cross and we took on His righteousness on our body. The penalty for sin is death; praise God! Jesus' body died that we might live.


Leviticus 1:11 "And he shall kill it on the side of the altar northward before the LORD: and the priests, Aaron's sons, shall sprinkle his blood round about upon the altar."


This and other kinds of sacrifices were killed "on the side of the altar northward" (Lev. 6:25 7:2). Because here seems to have been the largest and most convenient place for that work, the altar being probably near the middle of the east end of the building, and the entrance being on the south side. So the north side was the only vacant place. Besides, this might design the place of Christ's death, both more generally, to wit, in Jerusalem, which was:


"On the side of the altar northward" (Psalm 48:2). And more specially, to wit, on Mount Calvary, which was on the north and west side of Jerusalem.


We must remember from our Exodus teaching, that the priests symbolize those who have accepted Jesus Christ as their Savior and Lord. The high priest symbolized the pastor of the church. We also see in this above a type and shadow that we can apply to our present day church. The sinner brings the animal to the outer court and places his hand upon the animal's head. He symbolically transfers his sins to the animal in so doing. This is the very thing we have done when we receive Jesus as our perfect sacrifice; we have transferred our sin to Him, as we said before. In this Scripture above, it shows that usually the first dealing with a sinner is not done by the pastor of the church, but by someone who is a believer in Jesus; a Christian. This altar here that is spoken of, is not in the Holy of Holies, it is in the outer court. It is the bronze altar. Bronze means judgement. The way to God, as we said before, is through repentance. This altar comes before baptism. Aaron's sons ministered in the outer court. They put the blood on this altar of judgement, and the blood of the animal makes the person acceptable to God. Lay Christians bring prospects for the Christian faith to the church and then the minister preaches salvation to them. The sheep (believers in Christ), produce sheep. The pastor (shepherd), leads, guides, and feeds them after they come.


In this lesson, we have repeated ourselves quite a bit, but we must thoroughly understand these symbols before we go on. One of the most important lessons that we are to see in this, is that God Himself set up these sacrifices. This was being the way for sinful man to approach the Holy God. In the garden of Eden, after the sin of Adam and Eve, God sacrificed an animal and made garments for them out of the hide. In the burnt offering above, the only thing that was not completely burned up was the hide of the animal, which was given to the priest. Cain and Abel were a very good example that to be able to approach God, blood must be shed. Cain's offering was unacceptable, because no blood was shed. I could go on and on, but I am sure you see the significance of the shedding of blood. Please keep in mind the types and shadows as we see Jesus in all the sacrifices and offerings. The person killing this sacrifice was admitting his sin.


1. Who was to kill the offering for the burnt offering?


2. Where did he place his hand before he killed the animal?


3. What did this symbolize?


4. How does this resemble what Jesus did for us on the cross?


5. What 2 meanings does atonement have?


6. What difference is there between, what Jesus did for us when He shed His blood for us, and the blood shed of the animal?


7. What does Hebrews chapter 10 verse 4 tell us about animal's blood?


8. What does the author believe is the most beautiful statement in Leviticus 1:4?


9. Who sprinkles the blood on the altar in verse 5?


10. Where is the altar located that the burnt offering is made on?


11. Why was it necessary to kill the animal?


12. Without the ___________ of ________ there is no remission of sin.


13. What is the first step we must take for salvation?


14. What did the brazen altar symbolize?


15. The life of the flesh is in the _____.


16. In 1 John 1:7, we read that what cleanseth us from all unrighteousness?


17. What does the word flay mean in this lesson today?


18. God the Father cannot look upon sin, He will ______ ___ ____.


19. Why did Jesus cry out from the cross "Why hast thou forsaken me?"


20. Why does the author believe God allowed the temple in Jerusalem to be destroyed?


21. Who was to put the fire upon the altar?


22. What was the fat of the animal to the Lord?


23. What does the washing of the legs and inward parts of the animal teach us about our offerings today?


24. Why is it important for this animal to be a male?


25. What is the penalty for sin?


26. Who are the priests symbolic of?


27. Who is usually the first contact with a sinner?


28. If the sinner is brought to the church by the believers, what is the job of the pastor?


29. Who set up sacrifices?


30. What were their purpose?


31. Give the first example in the Bible of animal sacrifice?


32. What is the only thing the high priest keeps of the burnt offering?




Leviticus Chapter 1 Second Continued

In the first of this lesson, I would like to go over again a few of the highlights we have already learned. We need to get all of this down deep into our understanding, that we might better appreciate what Jesus did for us when He was crucified on the cross.


We know that the burnt offering was to be made just inside the tabernacle of the congregation. We could view it as the entrance of the church. We know that the animal had to be perfect with no blemishes. The animal must be brought by the person seeking God.


We saw in a previous lesson how the person bringing the animal had to place his hand upon the animal's head, symbolically placing his own sins on the animal. We also learned, that blood must be shed for the remission of sin.


Hebrews 9:22 "And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission."


Romans 6:23 "For the wages of sin [is] death; but the gift of God [is] eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord."


These 2 Scriptures show us the seriousness of sin. Sin must be paid for by death through the shedding of blood. This animal was the substitute for this sinner as Jesus Christ was our substitute. In the case of Jesus this debt was paid for all mankind who will accept it for all time.


The blood of an animal cannot do away with sin, only cover the sin. The blood of Jesus Christ destroyed sin for those who follow Jesus. Jesus took our sin upon His body, and we took on His righteousness, when we wash in His blood.


In the burnt offering, the only thing that was not completely burned up was the hide of the animal, which was given to the priest. Isn't it interesting that God sacrificed an animal in the garden of Eden and made garments to cover Adam and Eve out of the hide? Praise God! Our garment of white is washed in the blood of the Lamb.


Our covering (righteousness of Christ), was provided for us by our Savior Jesus Christ and will never wear out. Just as this burnt offering opened the way for these people to worship God, Jesus opened the way for the Christian to be in fellowship with God.


Leviticus 1:12 "And he shall cut it into his pieces, with his head and his fat: and the priest shall lay them in order on the wood that [is] on the fire which [is] upon the altar:"


The perfection of these Old Testament sacrifices prefigured the sinlessness of Christ, who was "holy, harmless, undefiled, separated from sinners" (Heb. 7:26; compare 9:24).


The first thing that jumps out at me in this is the fact that the person bringing the offering is helped by the priest. The priest sets everything in order. Remember, this animal being offered symbolizes this person's life of sin. This old life must be destroyed. The wood symbolizes worldliness, and it too, will be totally burned up. When a person first seeks God, they usually need help and direction to keep them in the path. The priest here, is like Christian leaders and friends who help us sort out things when we first come to the Lord. We need their guidance to get us started.


Leviticus 1:13 "But he shall wash the inwards and the legs with water: and the priest shall bring [it] all, and burn [it] upon the altar: it [is] a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD."


As he did the bullock (Lev. 1:9).


"And the priest shall bring it all": All the parts to the ascent of the altar, as the Jews interpret it. All the parts and pieces of it, even the very wool on the sheep's head. And the hair on the goat's beard, their bones, sinews, and horns, and hoofs, all were burnt, as it follows.


"And burn it on the altar, it is a burnt offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord" (see notes on Lev. 1:9).


LORD in the verse above is JEHOVAH, The Eternal One, or The One Who Exists. This was a very strong name the Hebrews used for God. This offering pleases God (sweet savor). This brings to mind the rejoicing in heaven over one sinner who comes home. These next 2 Scriptures let us know how much it pleases God for someone to be saved.


Luke 15:7 "I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just persons, which need no repentance."


Luke 15:10 "Likewise, I say unto you, there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth."


We must, also, look at the washing of the unclean parts of this animal. This says to me that unclean gifts are not acceptable unto God. Ministers should not take unclean gifts from donors, if they know they are unclean. We can also see in this offering in the other elements, water, blood and Spirit. We know that this offering shows us a shadow of Jesus. The fire symbolizes God or the Spirit. The water is represented by the water in the washing and the blood is present in the animal. Let us look at two more Scriptures that show us the importance of all three.


1 John 5:6 "This is he that came by water and blood, [even] Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth."


1 John 5:8 "And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one."


This burnt offering then, is not only an acceptable offering to God, but opens the way to fellowship with God.


Leviticus 1:14 "And if the burnt sacrifice for his offering to the LORD [be] of fowls, then he shall bring his offering of turtledoves, or of young pigeons."


As it might be for the poorer sort, who could not offer a bullock, nor a sheep, or a lamb (Lev. 5:7).


"Then he shall bring his offering of turtledoves, or of young pigeons": The Jewish writers all agree, that the turtles should be old, and not young, as the pigeons young, and not old. So the Targum of Jonathan, Jarchi, Aben Ezra and Gersom. The latter gives two reasons for it, because then they are the choicest and easiest to be found and taken. No mention is made of their being male or female, as either would do. Or of their being perfect and unblemished, as in the other burnt offerings. But if any part was wanting, it was not fit for sacrifice, as Maimonides observes. These creatures were proper emblems of Christ, and therefore used in sacrifice. Whose voice is compared to the turtle's, and his eyes to the eyes of doves (SOS 2:12). And who is fitly represented by them for his meekness and humility. And for his chaste and strong affection to his church, as the turtledove to its mate, and for those dove like graces of the Spirit which are in him.


The only reason this offering would be of a fowl, would be because the offeror was poor and could not offer more. God does not excuse the poor from making offerings, but does allow them to give less according to their ability to pay. This is such a beautiful symbolic meaning here. This type of fowl is a messenger. The dove also, symbolizes the Holy Spirit. This implies that the thoughts of man should soar above the earthly and be stayed upon the heavenly. Each person dedicating their life to God should be His messenger.


Leviticus 1:15 "And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and wring off his head, and burn [it] on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be wrung out at the side of the altar:"


"The priest ... wring off": Unlike the livestock being killed by the one offering the sacrifice, the bird was killed by the priest.


All of the burnt offerings show a shadow of Christ. I would say this would be the sorrowful Christ. This blood being wrung out shows the violent manner that Jesus shed His blood. It is wrong to believe that Jesus' blood was spilled. It was no accident that He shed His blood for us.


Leviticus 1:16 "And he shall pluck away his crop with his feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, by the place of the ashes:"


"Crop ... feathers": This refers to the neck or gullet of a bird where food was stored.


"East part ... place of the ashes": This was the closest side to the entrance of the tabernacle compound and provided for the easiest removal of the ashes outside (compare 6:10-11).


This casting away of the feathers, shows me the fact that Jesus' robe was cast off before His crucifixion. To perfectly humiliate Him, they took His robe off. In this we see the humiliation of Jesus on the cross.


Leviticus 1:17 "And he shall cleave it with the wings thereof, [but] shall not divide [it] asunder: and the priest shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood that [is] upon the fire: it [is] a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD."


One wing being on one side, and the other on the other side.


"But shall not divide it asunder": The body of the bird, though it was cleaved down in the middle, yet not parted asunder, nor any of its wings separated from it. The Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it, "but shall not separate its wings from it". This denoted, that though, by the death of Christ, his soul and body were separated from each other, yet the human nature was not separated from his divine Person. The personal union between the two natures still continuing. Nor was he divided from his divine Father, though he was forsaken by him, yet still in union with him as the Son of God. Nor from the divine Spirit, by which he offered up himself to God, and by which he was quickened. Nor from his church and people, for whom he suffered, they being united to him as members to their head.


"And the priest shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood that is upon the fire": In like manner as the ox, sheep, or goat were burnt. According to the Misnah, the priest went up the ascent (of the altar), and turned round about the circuit. When he came to the southeast horn, he cut its head (or nipped it) with his nail, over against its neck, and divided it, and squeezed out its blood by the wall of the altar, and turned the part nipped to the altar, and struck it at it, and rubbed it with salt, and cast it upon the fires. Then he went to the body and removed the crop and its feathers (or dung), and the entrails that came out along with it, and threw them into the place of ashes. He cleaved but did not divide asunder, but if he divided it was right, then he rubbed it with salt, and cast it upon the fires.


"It is a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord" (see notes on Lev. 1:9).


We can see in this spreading wide the wings and placing it upon the wood in one piece; the body of Jesus on the cross. Jesus' arms were spread out as the wings of this dove were and placed upon a wooden cross. Jesus made the statement, that in this He glorified the Father. I would like to quote 3 Scriptures that show that in this God the Father was pleased and glorified.


John 12:28 "Father, glorify thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven, [saying], I have both glorified [it], and will glorify [it] again."


John 17:1 "These words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee:"


John 17:5 "And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was."


There is no need to add to this, it says it all.


Leviticus Chapter 1 Second Continued Questions


1. Where was this burnt offering to be made?


2. What could this be viewed as, that pertains to us?


3. Who brought the animal to be sacrificed?


4. What was the symbolic meaning of the person making the offering placing his hand upon the head of the animal to be sacrificed?


5. What is the only permissible thing, that can take sin away?


6. The wages of sin is ________.


7. What one word describes what this animal was, for the person bringing it?


8. What happened to the hide of the animal?


9. When God killed an animal in the garden of Eden, what did He do with the hide?


10. What is the Christian's covering?


11. Where did the priest lay the offering after he had cut it up?


12. What does the wood of the altar symbolize?


13. The priest in verse 12, reminds us of whom?


14. What parts of the animal must be washed before burning?


15. LORD, in verse 13, is whom?


16. What does this offering being a sweet savor, let us know about the offering?


17. Where do we find the Scripture that says there is joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth?


18. What message should we receive about unclean gifts here?


19. In 1 John 5:8, what 3 things bear witness in earth?


20. When is the only time acceptable to bring a fowl for a burnt offering?


21. What is this fowl mentioned here symbolic of?


22. The Dove specifically symbolizes Whom?


23. Where should the thoughts of man be?


24. What does the blood being wrung out of the fowl show us about the crucifixion of Jesus?


25. What shadow of Jesus' crucifixion does the plucking of the feathers and throwing them at the foot of the altar show?


26. Why were the wings of the fowl spread open and placed on the wood?


27. Where are the Scriptures found that say this glorifies the Father and Jesus?





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Leviticus 2



Leviticus Chapter 2

Verses 1-16: The meaning of a word changes in the course of time, and we have just such an instance here. The "meat offering unto the Lord" was the one offering that did not consist of "meat". It was the "meal offering", an offering of grain or cereals made of fine flour. The word translated "meat" means in Hebrew simply a "present". The primary idea of this offering is that of a gift presented to God as an act of worship. Yet, because this offering was the product of the soil and the result of human labor, it symbolized the consecration to God of the fruit of one's labor. This was in the form of food and indicated that all our toil or our activities should be dedicated to God (compare Eccl. 2:24-25; 1 Cor. 10:31).


The ingredients included are significant. The "oil" was not only a usual constituent of daily food, but has been recognized as a symbol of the Holy Spirit. People who are dedicated to God can expect the power of His Spirit to guide, aid, and empower them on a daily basis. "Frankincense" was incense of high quality. It was white like the manna (Exodus 16:14; Num. 11:8), and symbolized prayer and praise. As one offered to God the work of his hands, it was sanctified by continual petition and thanksgiving. The "memorial of it" was burned before the Lord; the remainder was given to the priest as his support. His ministry was absolutely necessary if offerings were to be made. In (6:14-23), it is prescribed that a meal offering shall be presented by the priest for the whole people of Israel every morning and every evening. The reference to "salt" indicates that the act of sacrifice was a reminder of the eternal covenant relationship between the worshiper and his God. A "covenant of salt" was indissoluble (Num. 18:19). It began as necessary to a proper meal, but because an emblem of fidelity in the Near East, and thus the "salt of the covenant".


Leviticus 2:1 " And when any will offer a meat offering unto the LORD, his offering shall be [of] fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon:"


"Meat offering": As the burnt offering, typified Christ in His death, the meal offering typifies Him in life. It speaks of His loving and living obedience through a spotless life, dedicated to God and satisfying the demands of the law (Matt. 3:15). Without leaven, typifying malice, wickedness and erroneous doctrine (1 Cor. 5:6-9; Matt. 16:12), the bread symbolized the consecration of one's life and substance (Lev. 2:14). Jesus used the unleavened bread during the Passover to symbolize His body, broken for us (1 Cor. 11:23-24), an act which is memorialized by the Lord's Supper in this Church Age. Oil usually signifies the Holy Spirit, given to Him without measure (John 3:34). Frankincense, a sweet resin used in perfumes and burned for its pleasant aroma, speaks of spiritual dedication and communion (see. Mal. 1:11; Rev. 5:8; 8:3-4), exemplified in Christ's life and ministry.


This "meat offering" really had no animal flesh in it. This offering accompanied the burnt offering. We must recognize right here from the beginning, the symbolic meaning of these elements. These elements above are the elements used in making bread. Jesus is the Bread of life. Notice these 2 following Scriptures which say that very thing.


John 6:35 "And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst."


John 6:51 "I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world."


This statement, that this bread is His flesh, just might be the reason this offering is called the meat offering. Fine flour indicates that this is the best. We must not offer God second best. This oil here, symbolizes the Holy Spirit. Jesus was full to overflowing with the Spirit of God. Frankincense made a sweet odor before God. Frankincense was given Jesus at His birth, which recognized Him as the Bread and burnt offering. He was our atonement.


Leviticus 2:2 "And he shall bring it to Aaron's sons the priests: and he shall take thereout his handful of the flour thereof, and of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof; and the priest shall burn the memorial of it upon the altar, [to be] an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD:"


"Handful": Unlike the whole burnt offering (1:9), only a representative or memorial portion was given to the Lord.


This was the task of the priest. The handful that he took and burnt upon the altar has the technical and significate name of the memorial. It acted as a memorial before God, in the same way as Cornelius's prayers and alms.


Acts 10:4 "Thy prayers and thine alms are come up for a memorial before God".


Being something which should cause God to think graciously of the offeror. The frankincense is not mixed with the flour and the oil and the salt, as a constituent element of the offering. But is placed upon them, and is all of it burnt in "the memorial," symbolizing the need of adding prayer to sacrifice, that the latter may be acceptable to God.


Notice here, that the tithe of this flour, oil, and frankincense was not eaten by anyone, it was an offering to God. The rest of this was given to the priests, who are symbolic of the Christians. The Christians are to partake of this bread. This burning of a portion of this on the fire, is to glorify God. The remainder, which was given to the priests, shows the great sacrifice of Jesus' body on the cross for the Christians.


Matthew 26:26 "And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed [it], and brake [it], and gave [it] to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body."


You see the Bread was symbolic of Jesus' body. Jesus' sacrifice of His body, on the cross, glorified the Father and provided the Bread of life for the believers.


Leviticus 2:3 "And the remnant of the meat offering [shall be] Aaron's and his sons': [it is] a thing most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire."


"Aaron and his sons": Unlike the brunt offering (1:9, 13, 17), this offering supplies provision for the priests.


Which not only shows the care taken by the Lord for the maintenance of the priests, from whence the apostle argues for the support of ministers of the Gospel (1 Cor. 9:13). But denotes that such who are made priests unto God by Christ, have a right to feed upon Christ the meat offering by faith. Who is that altar and meat offering, which none but such have a right to eat of.


"It is a thing most holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire": Some offerings with the Jews were only holy things, or, as they call them, "light" holy things, comparatively speaking. Others were heavy holy things, or most holy. Or, as it is in the original, "holiness of holiness", the most holy of all.


These Bread remnants should be eaten by the minister (who Aaron represents), and the Christians (who his sons represent). This is, perhaps, speaking of communion.


Matthew 4:4 "But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God."


Another meaning for this could very well be that, the minister and all Christians should partake of the Bread (Bible). It is of utmost importance to study the Bible every day. We cannot live without this spiritual food.


Leviticus 2:4 "And if thou bring an oblation of a meat offering baked in the oven, [it shall be] unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil."


This is another kind of meat offering, or in another form. The former was only fine flour and oil mixed together, and frankincense put on it. But this was made up into cakes, and baked in an oven, and not in anything else, according to the Jewish tradition. He that says, lo, upon me be a meat offering baked in an oven, he may not bring that baked otherwise. And this meat offering was made into cakes and wafers, and then baked, as follows. And:


"It shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil". Which according to the Jews were made after this manner; the priest put the oil into a vessel before the making of it, then put the fine flour to it, and put oil upon it, and mixed it, and kneaded it, and baked it. Then cut it in pieces, and put oil upon it, and mixed it. And again, put oil upon it, and took the handful, and it was the fourth part of an hin of oil that was divided into the several cakes. The cakes, they say, were obliged to be mixed, and the wafers to be anointed. The cakes were mixed, but not the wafers, the wafers were anointed, but not the cakes. The oil denoted the grace of the Spirit of God in Christ, and in his people. And being unleavened, the sincerity and truth with which the meat offering, Christ, is to be upon.


The fact that this Bread (whether baked in an oven or served separately), must be without leaven, because leaven symbolizes sin. Jesus was without sin. In fact, He was Holy. This offering therefore must be Holy, and without leaven. The oil here again, symbolizes the Spirit.


Leviticus 2:5 "And if thy oblation [be] a meat offering [baked] in a pan, it shall be [of] fine flour unleavened, mingled with oil."


Which had no edge or covering, and the paste on it hard, that it might not run out.


"It shall be of fine flour unleavened, mingled with oil": Signifying the same as before.


It does not matter how this Bread is prepared, it must be without leaven. This just states over and over the importance of being without sin. This (mingled with oil), just means to be totally under the control of the Holy Spirit. This means that Jesus was the Son of the Spirit of God. Jesus did not have an earthly father; His Father was God the Spirit. The fine flour speaks of the evenness (balance), of His (JESUS') character.


Leviticus 2:6 "Thou shalt part it in pieces, and pour oil thereon: it [is] a meat offering."


Pouring oil on bread is a common practice among Eastern people, who are fond of broken bread dipped in oil, butter, or milk. Oil only was used in the meat offerings, and probably for a symbolic reason. It is evident that these meat offerings were previously prepared by the offeror, and when brought, the priest was to take it from his hands and burn a portion on the altar.


When Jesus served the bread and wine to the disciples, He broke it and then served it. Jesus' body was broken for you and me. This indicates that there is plenty to go around.


Matthew 14:19 "And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake, and gave the loaves to [his] disciples, and the disciples to the multitude."


We see in this Scripture from Matthew, the abundance of this Bread. There were 12 baskets full left over. God fed the Israelites in the wilderness every day with this Bread. We studied in Exodus that the multitude on their way to the Promised Land were about 3 million. The Bread (Jesus), is sufficient for everyone. We must not just read the Bible, but let the Holy Spirit teach us the meaning. The Word (bread), must be consumed along with the Holy Spirit, to satisfy our needs.


Leviticus 2:7 "And if thy oblation [be] a meat offering [baked] in the frying pan, it shall be made [of] fine flour with oil."


It is asked, what difference there is between the pan, and the frying pan? the frying pan has a cover, but the pan has no cover. The frying pan is deep, and its works (or paste), flow, or are thin, but the pan is extended, and its works (or paste), are hard or stiff. Which Maimonides explains thus, the frying pan is a deep vessel, which has a lip or edge round about it, and the paste which is baked in it is thin and flows. The pan is a vessel which has no lip or edge, and therefore its paste is hard or stiff, that it flows not. Now all these acts of mixing the flour, and kneading, and baking, and frying, and cutting in pieces, as well as burning part on the altar, signify the dolorous sufferings of Christ when he was sacrificed for us. To be both an atonement for our sins, and food for our faith.


"It shall be made of fine flour with oil. As the other sort of meat offerings before mentioned.


Oblation means something brought near the altar, or a sacrificial present. The main thing to be learned in the verse above, I believe, is that if you fry, it must be in oil not animal fat.


Leviticus 2:8 "And thou shalt bring the meat offering that is made of these things unto the LORD: and when it is presented unto the priest, he shall bring it unto the altar."


Either to the tabernacle, the house of the Lord, or to the Lord's priest, as it follows.


"And when it is presented to the priest": By the owner of it.


"He shall bring it unto the altar": To the south west horn of the altar.


In this verse, we see the priest symbolizes our great High Priest Jesus Christ. To approach God, we must come to Jesus. Jesus opened the way to the Father for us, as the priest makes the offering for the person here. Jesus Christ is our only mediator.


Leviticus 2:9 "And the priest shall take from the meat offering a memorial thereof, and shall burn [it] upon the altar: [it is] an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD."


That is, a handful of it; as of the fine flour (Lev. 2:2). So of the pieces of that which was baked, whether in the oven, or pan, or frying pan.


"And shall burn it upon the altar": The memorial or handful.


"It is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord (see notes on Lev. 1:9).


This memorial (meat offering), speaks of the death of the body of Jesus Christ on the cross for us. In the very next verse, we will see the Bread, Jesus, feeding the living. The life of Christ is the living Bread. We Christians have life, because we partake of the Bread of life (Jesus Christ our Lord). In this next verse, see ministers in the priest and Christians in the sons of the priest.


Leviticus 2:10 "And that which is left of the meat offering [shall be] Aaron's and his sons': [it is] a thing most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire."


Not burnt with fire.


"Shall be Aaron's and his sons'": The high priest took his part first, and then the common priests.


"It is a thing most holy of the offerings of the Lord made by fire (see notes on Lev. 2:3).


Two very important things happened in Jesus' sacrifice on the cross. It glorified the Father (sweet savor), and it brought life to all who would believe. This Bread, we have been looking at here, is symbolic of the body of Christ. All must eat of this Bread to have everlasting life.


John 6:53 "Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you."


I have one question for you. Have you eaten of this living Bread?


Leviticus Chapter 2 Questions


1. What 3 elements made up this meat offering?


2. The meat offering accompanied what offering?


3. What do these 3 elements symbolize?


4. Who is the Bread of life?


5. Where are the 2 Scriptures found that call Jesus the Bread?


6. This offering is called a meat offering, why is it not called a bread offering?


7. We must offer God our ______ not our second ______.


8. The gift of frankincense at Jesus birth recognized Jesus as what?


9. The person bringing the meat offering to the tabernacle should turn it over to whom?


10. What was the offering of part of this on the fire called?


11. Who do the priests symbolize in this?


12. Why is a portion of this burned on the fire?


13. What did Jesus call the bread that He broke and gave the disciples when he fed them Passover?


14. What were 2 of the things the sacrifice of Jesus' body on the cross did?


15. Who was the remnant of the meat offering given to?


16. Who does Aaron represent in verse 3?


17. Who do Aaron's sons represent?


18. Man shall not live by bread alone but by what?


19. How often should Christians study the Bible?


20. Christians cannot live without ___________ food.


21. What does leaven represent?


22. Why must this Bread be unleavened?


23. What does it mean when it says mingled with oil?


24. When Jesus fed the multitude with the 5 loaves and 2 fishes, what did He do before He passed the bread?


25. How large was the multitude that was fed on the way to the Promised Land?


26. The Bread must be consumed along with what to satisfy the needs of the Christians?


27. What does oblation mean?


28. For the Christian to approach God, we must come to ________.


29. What does the memorial meat offering speak of?


30. The remainder speaks of what?


31. Who is the Bread of Life?


32. Who did the death of Jesus' body on the cross bring life to?


33. Have you eaten of this living Bread?




Leviticus Chapter 2 Continued

We have been studying about the meat offering just inside the tabernacle door. We have mentioned this several times before, but it is of no use at all to study the Old Testament, unless you can see Jesus. As we look at all the sacrifices and offerings, we will be able to see Jesus in them all. The meat offering actually contains the elements of Bread. We mentioned that, probably, the reason it is called the meat offering is that the Bread actually symbolizes the body of Jesus.


Matthew 26:26 "And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed [it], and brake [it], and gave [it] to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body."


Mark 14:22 "And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake [it], and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body."


We can easily see that the Bread and Jesus' body are one and the same. Let us continue with the study now by reading:


Leviticus 2:11 "No meat offering, which ye shall bring unto the LORD, shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the LORD made by fire."


This applies to the offering of 2:4-10, all which were to be burned on the altar.


"No ... leaven ... honey": Both yeast and honey were edible foods, but were never to be used with a grain offering, since both could induce fermentation, which symbolized sin (see note on 2:4).


We see, in the verse above, that leaven is not to be used in the meat offering. As we said before, leaven symbolizes sin. Jesus' body was free from sin. Jesus was the only person who ever lived upon the earth free from sin. In fact, He was holy. Sin is an abomination to God. To burn leaven on the altar would make a repulsive odor, not a sweet smelling savor. Honey, as well as leaven, is something to please the flesh, not the spirit of man. God will not accept worldly offerings. The things we do for God must not be for worldly fame. The offerings we make must be to please God alone.


Leviticus 2:12 "As for the oblation of the firstfruits, ye shall offer them unto the LORD: but they shall not be burnt on the altar for a sweet savor."


This applies to the offering of 2:14-16, which was not to be burned on the altar, but rather roasted by the worshiper (verse 14), before going to the tabernacle.


There is a great deal of difference between the meat offering and the firstfruits offering. The meat offering represents the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ on the cross. The firstfruits celebrate the resurrection of the Lord Jesus. You can easily see that first fruits are for man. It would be alright to use leaven and honey in firstfruits, since it is pleasing to man.


1 Corinthians 15:20 "But now is Christ risen from the dead, [and] become the firstfruits of them that slept."


1 Corinthians 15:23 "But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming."


Leviticus 2:13 "And every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou season with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat offering: with all thine offerings thou shalt offer salt."


"The salt of the covenant": This was included in all of the offerings in 2:4-10, 14-16 since salt was emblematic of permanence or loyalty to the covenant.


Salt is a preserver. Many times salt was used to confirm a covenant with God. I will give just one example of that practice here, when God made a covenant with David.


2 Chronicles 13:5 "Ought ye not to know that the LORD God of Israel gave the kingdom over Israel to David for ever, [even] to him and to his sons by a covenant of salt?"


When salt was added to this offering, it showed that it was for all of eternity. The sacrifice that Jesus made for us on the cross was for all generations to come. It was the ultimate sacrifice and there would be no need for any more sacrifices. Jesus called the believers the salt of the earth. Christians must be the preserver of all that is true and good.


Matthew 5:13 "Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savor, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men."


In this Scripture, above and in the 6th chapter of Hebrews, you can see how terrible it is for a Christian to go back into the world after confessing belief in Jesus. Salt keeps decay away, so it is a true preserving. Salt symbolizes incorruption. I could go on and on about the good references about salt, but we will get into more on it later.


Leviticus 2:14 "And if thou offer a meat offering of thy first fruits unto the LORD, thou shalt offer for the meat offering of thy firstfruits green ears of corn dried by the fire, [even] corn beaten out of full ears."


"Of thy first fruits": These would be offered at the Feast of Firstfruits (23:9-14), and the Feast of Weeks (23:15-22).


This meat offering has one thing the other did not. This offering is from the first corn of the season. Even before providing for their own family, the first corn was given to God. This is truly giving the best and first to God. I have said so many times that God wants all of you. He must have 100%, or none at all. That is what I see in the first of the harvest being given to the Lord. Christians should practice Firstfruits in their offerings to God. We give to God in anticipation of earnings. Others wait until they know what their earnings are and then give one tenth of that. Firstfruits is one thing that separates Christians from others. We Christians even worship on the first day of the week, instead of the last day of the week.


Leviticus 2:15 "And thou shalt put oil upon it, and lay frankincense thereon: it [is] a meat offering."


"Frankincense": A gum resin with a pungent, balsamic odor, used in the tabernacle sacrifices.


Jesus was not only born with the Holy Ghost as His Father, but was filled with the Spirit of God. The oil in these offerings shows the continuous presence of the Holy Spirit in the ministry of Jesus here on the earth. The frankincense, here and in all of the offerings, shows that God the Father is pleased with everything that Jesus did. All the actions of Jesus on the earth glorified the Father and were a sweet smell to God. This is the sweet smelling savor.


Leviticus 2:16 "And the priest shall burn the memorial of it, [part] of the beaten corn thereof, and [part] of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof: [it is] an offering made by fire unto the LORD."


That which is taken out of it for a memorial, the same with the handful of fine flour and cakes of the meat offering.


"Part of the beaten corn thereof": Or that which was ground in a mill.


"And part of the oil thereof, with all the frankincense thereof": As was done in the other meat offerings.


"It is an offering made by fire unto the Lord" (see Lev. 2:2).


This portion of the offering that was burned on the fire was offered to God by the priest. It was completely burned up, not eaten by anyone. This beaten corn is symbolic of the beaten body of the Lord Jesus Christ. The oil is not just any oil, but the holy oil, symbolic of the Holy Spirit of God. The frankincense sends a sweet fragrance to God and it symbolizes that all glory goes to God. We see, in all of this, that we must totally commit ourselves to God. It is very important to do as Jesus did, and say with Jesus, not my will but thine Oh! LORD.


We have been looking at two offerings that go hand in hand. The meat offering and the firstfruits offering go together. We can see in this that the crucifixion would not be complete without the resurrection from the grave.


We must see in all of this that total commitment to God is the only thing pleasing to God. God must be first. We must dedicate all work that we might do to the glory of God. The bread (Word of God), is the staff of life. Bread is not a pleasant food, but a food of necessity. The Bread (Jesus Christ), takes care of all our needs. It is by grace we are saved, not of our good works. The blood of Jesus Christ reconciles us to the Father. To sum this lesson up, we would say that we must serve a Holy God with clean hands and a pure heart, bringing gifts acceptable unto Him.


Leviticus Chapter 2 Continued Questions


1. Where was the meat offering given?


2. If the Old Testament is to be useful to us, who must we see in it?


3. The meat offering actually contains the elements of what?


4. Why is it called the meat offering, if it contains no meat?


5. The Bread and Jesus' ________ are one and the same.


6. What 2 things were never to be part of the meat offering?


7. What does leaven symbolize?


8. What do honey and leaven have in common?


9. Why were honey and leaven acceptable in the firstfruits offering?


10. What did firstfruits symbolize?


11. What did the meat offering symbolize?


12. The firstfruits was for ______.


13. When does 1 Corinthians 15:23 tell us the Christians shall be resurrected?


14. Every oblation of the meat offering shall be seasoned with what?


15. What was used many times to confirm a covenant of God with man?


16. What Old Testament character did we give an example of sealing an agreement with salt?


17. How long was this agreement for?


18. How long was the sacrifice Jesus made on the cross good for?


19. In Matthew chapter 5 verse 13, what did Jesus call the believers?


20. What chapter in Hebrews tells of the terrible fate of those who turn away from salvation in Jesus and go back into the world?


21. Incorruption is symbolized by what?


22. What should Christians practice in their gifts to God?


23. Worshipping on the first day of the week practices what?


24. What shows the continuous presence of the Holy Spirit in these offerings?


25. What does the frankincense show about the Father in these offerings?


26. The memorial offering was eaten by whom?


27. Which 2 offerings go hand in hand?


28. The crucifixion of the Lord would not be complete without what?


29. All work that we might do must be dedicated to whom?


30. How could you sum up this lesson?





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Leviticus 3



Leviticus Chapter 3

We will be looking at the Peace Offering in this lesson. The Hebrew name for the peace offering is (zebach shelamim), which means sacrifice of peace offerings. This was a festive feast and was along with and after the burnt offering, meat offering, and Firstfruits. This offering symbolizes the peace that comes through Jesus Christ after He has reconciled us to Father God. There is a peace that true Christians have, that is actually beyond the world's comprehension. Just the fact that we have no fear of death, sets us aside from the world. The believers have hope of the resurrection, as we said in a previous lesson. Peace offerings were a way of thanking God for His bountiful blessings.


Leviticus 3:1 "And if his oblation [be] a sacrifice of peace offering, if he offer [it] of the herd; whether [it be] a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the LORD."


"Peace offering": The slain animal offering differs from the burnt offering. The fat and the kidneys were removed from the bullock or heifer, after the blood. If it was a lamb being offered, the rump was also removed. The inner parts were burned and the remainder provided sustenance for the priests. This typifies Christ as our peace offering on the cross, for He is also our "peace" (Eph. 2:13-17).


We see that both males and females are acceptable in this offering. This peace offering does not relate to the physical body of Jesus Christ is why this is so. The peace of God comes to both male and female, when we receive Jesus as our Savior. Take note that all offerings are to be without blemish. Of course, LORD here is Jehovah. Their herd consisted not only of cattle, but sheep, and goats, as well. This would mean then, that they could bring a bull, or cow, a he goat or a she goat, or a ram or an ewe.


Leviticus 3:2 "And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it [at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron's sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about."


The peace offering, the burnt offering, the meat offering, and the firstfruits offering were all just inside the door of the tabernacle. This is like a brand new Christian who has just received the Lord Jesus as their Savior. What overwhelming joy there is when one sinner comes to Christ. It calls for a celebration, and that is what the peace offering is all about. We see again, the laying of the hand on the animal's head to show the transfer of the person's sin (symbolically), to the offering. Actually, this offering will turn into a feast. The sons of Aaron and the one who offers will eat of this meat after it is properly prepared. We see, in this blood, that the Lord Jesus is the one who brings this peace. It is as if we are thanking Him for His sacrifice of His blood for us. Jesus made peace with God for us, He is our peace.


Ephesians 2:14 "For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition [between us];"


Leviticus 3:3 "And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace offering an offering made by fire unto the LORD; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that [is] upon the inwards,"


This fat and the inwards that were burned on this bronze altar, were a sweet smelling savor unto the Lord. This offering to God recognized where the peace of God came from. This is like a prayer of thanksgiving from us to God. Remember, on this same altar, the covenant with God and His people had been sealed with the salt. There is plenty to rejoice about. Since we are looking at types and shadows, we can see the Lord's supper with the apostles shadowed in this peace offering. Notice in the next few verses, that the priests partake of the food from this offering. The priests symbolize Jesus' followers then and now.


Leviticus 3:4 "And the two kidneys, and the fat that [is] on them, which [is] by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away."


Meaning either the two kidneys which were next the flanks, or the fat upon them, which was next to them. These, and the burning of them, may signify the burning zeal and flaming love and affections of Christ for his people. "The fat": All of the fat was dedicated to the Lord 3:3-5, 9-11, 14-16).


"And the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away": Or the caul, which is a thin membrane or skin, in which the liver is enclosed. With the liver, together with the kidneys, he separated from the rest in order to burn, at least with a part of the liver.


We see in this that the portion to be burned is the kidney and all of the fat. This is to be burned as a sweet savor to the Lord. Later on in this same chapter the people are told to not eat fat or blood, that they belong to God. One of the terrible practices of Satan worshippers today is the drinking of blood. This would be a horrible abomination to God.


Leviticus 3:5 "And Aaron's sons shall burn it on the altar upon the burnt sacrifice, which [is] upon the wood that [is] on the fire: [it is] an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the LORD."


That is, the fat of the several parts before mentioned. This signified the sufferings of Christ, by which our peace is made, and by whose death we are reconciled to God. This rite of burning the fat of the inwards of sacrifices was used by the Pagans, and is still retained by the idolatrous Indians to this day.


"Upon the burnt sacrifice": Which, as Gersom says, was the burnt offering of the daily sacrifice of the morning, which was offered first of all sacrifices. So Jarchi says, "we learn that the daily burnt offering preceded every other offering." This was an eminent type of Christ's sacrifice.


"Which is upon the wood that is on the fire": That is, which burnt offering was laid upon the wood on the fire, and the fat of the peace offering upon that.


"It is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor unto the Lord": As Christ's sacrifice is (Eph. 5:2; see note on Lev. 1:9).


This is to be burned on the brazen altar. The priests, the sons of Aaron, were to do the burning. Remember one more time that the priests symbolize the Christians. This shows us that in our thanksgiving to God, we should also give offerings to His work.


Leviticus 3:6 "And if his offering for a sacrifice of peace offering unto the LORD [be] of the flock; male or female, he shall offer it without blemish."


As it might be: and be either male or female; which he pleased. In the peace offering either male or female could be offered, but in the burnt offering only the male. So here no birds can be offered, but in the burnt offering they might. There, all was consumed with fire; and in the peace offering, divided.


"He shall offer it without blemish" (see note on Lev. 3:1).


We notice again here, that there is provision made for those who are too poor to bring a specific offering. This just shows me that regardless of how poor you are; you are not exempt from giving. God allows those who have less to give less, but He does not exempt them from giving. Since this is still the peace offering and does not typify the body of Jesus, a male or female can be given. This still must be a first class offering, not any damaged goods.


Leviticus 3:7 "If he offer a lamb for his offering, then shall he offer it before the LORD."


Which was of the flock, and must be of the first year. This is a rule laid down by Maimonides, that where ever this word is used in the law, it signifies one of the first year.


"Then shall he offer it before the Lord": Bring it into the court, and present it to the priest.


This is just going into more detail about each of the offerings. In fact, this was included (in verse 1), when male or female of the herd were mentioned.


Leviticus 3:8 "And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron's sons shall sprinkle the blood thereof round about upon the altar."


"He shall lay his hand upon the head": The offeror of the sacrifice, by touching the head with the hand, indicates identification, symbolically shifting the guilt and penalty for his own sins to the sacrifice. This act finds its typical fulfillment in justification by faith through Christ. This is the third and last of the sweet savor offerings, which show Christ in His own human perfection, and His willingness to lovingly obey the Father's will.


We discussed earlier, that the laying the hand over on the animal's head was as if this animal represented the offeror before God. This offering of thanksgiving to the Lord should not be a private affair. When we are praising God, we should not be ashamed to do it in front of others. We should tell the world that God has blessed us. The person offering the lamb should not touch the altar. The sons of Aaron will place the meat to be burned, and sprinkle the blood as well.


Leviticus 3:9 "And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace offering an offering made by fire unto the LORD; the fat thereof, [and] the whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the backbone; and the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that [is] upon the inwards,"


That is, the priest, Aaron, or one of his two sons.


"An offering made by fire unto the Lord": That part of it which was to be burnt with fire. And in the peace offering of the lamb there was something more than in the peace offering of the bullock, or of the goat, which follows.


"The fat thereof, and the whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the backbone. Not the rump or tail, but the fat of it. Some sheep and lambs had very large tails, and very fat ones, the least weighing ten or twelve pounds. The largest above forty, and were put in little carts for ease and safety (see note on Exodus 29:22). Now such as were "whole", entire, perfect, and without blemish, as the word signifies. The fat of them that was next to the backbone was to be taken off of such as were brought for peace offerings.


"And the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards": As before (see note on Lev. 3:3).


Rump here means the fat tail of an oriental sheep. All fat was to be burned in all of these offerings. The only reason I can see this mentioned separately here, is, that most of the other animals did not have these fat tails. The reason this fat is mentioned so many times is that God wants to impress upon them the importance of not eating fat. The fat belonged to God. I say, again, all fat was to be burned as a sweet savor to the Lord. We need to go over a few things in this lesson one more time, so that we will not forget them. The peace offering was to be offered on the bronze altar just inside the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. The offeror was to kill the animal. The offeror was to place his hand upon the animal's head while he was killing it to show that the animal represented the offeror. For the peace offering, the animal could be male or female. This was a thank offering and did not shadow the very body of Christ. This thank offering was shared by the person offering it and the priests, after the fat and blood and the inward parts were offered to God. The part offered to God must be burned upon the burnt altar.


Leviticus Chapter 3 Questions


1. Which offering does this lesson deal with?


2. What is the Hebrew name for the peace offering?


3. What does it mean?


4. What other offerings were made on the same altar?


5. Christians have no fear of ________.


6. What hope do the Christians have that the world does not have?


7. What animal could be offered in the peace offering?


8. What must be the condition of the animal offered?


9. What animals did their herds consist of?


10. Where was the person to kill the animal?


11. Who was to sprinkle the blood upon the altar?


12. What overwhelming joy there is when one __________ comes to ________.


13. Who will be allowed to eat of this meat after it is properly prepared?


14. Where do we find the Scripture that says He is our peace?


15. What part of this offering was to be burned upon the fire, an offering to God?


16. This peace offering is like a prayer of _________________.


17. What had the covenant of God been sealed with?


18. What 2 things are not to be eaten, because they belong to God?


19. What is one of the terrible practices in the church of Satan today?


20. Do the poor have to sacrifice? Explain.


21. Should the offering of praise be made privately or publicly?


22. What does rump mean in verse 9?


23. Why is the fat mentioned over and over?


24. Name at least 4 things we repeated about this offering at the end of the lesson.




Leviticus Chapter 3 Continued

We are examining the peace offerings. This is an offering of thanksgiving. This offering can be either a male or female of the herd. All of the fat is to be burned on the bronze altar as a sweet smelling savor to the Lord. The blood belongs to God as well and must be sprinkled on the altar by the priests. We discovered in the last lesson that the tail (rump), of the sheep must also be offered to God, because it was fat.


Leviticus 3:10 "And the two kidneys, and the fat that [is] upon them, which [is] by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away."


The same direction is given here as about the bullock of the peace offering (see note on Lev. 3:4).


This is a very important lesson here to be learned about the fat. Perhaps it is telling us that we should watch our diet and not let our flesh cause us to be a glutton. We have spoken before about Satan worshippers partaking of blood. Perhaps the spiritual meaning of believers not partaking of blood means that we should be peacemakers and not warmongers. We should be interested in saving life, not in destroying life. It is interesting to me that the priests, the person who brings the offering, and God are all to partake of this offering. To me this indicates fellowship of the believer with God: if you will, in the breaking of bread (sharing a meal).


Leviticus 3:11 "And the priest shall burn it upon the altar: [it is] the food of the offering made by fire unto the LORD."


"The food": The sacrifice was intended to symbolized a meal between God and the one offering it, where peace and friendship were epitomized by sharing that meal together.


The fact that God's part of the offering was completely burned up, shows His consumption of His part of the feast.


Leviticus 3:12 And if his offering [be] a goat, then he shall offer it before the LORD.


As it might be, and which also was of the flock.


"Then he shall offer it before the Lord": In the same place and manner as the bullock and the lamb.


This is an interesting thing to have as an offering. Even to associate the Lord Jesus with a goat almost seems sacrilegious. But remember, this offering does not foreshadow the flesh of Jesus. This shadow of Jesus in this goat, perhaps, has to do with the fact that this goat gave his life so that the rest of the flock would be spared. Jesus gave His life that all others might be saved. Even though the flesh of Jesus is not foreshadowed in the peace offering, Jesus is foreshadowed as Savior.


John 11:50 "Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not."


John 18:14 "Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people."


It had been taught from the beginning that one should die for the people. In this, only this goat that was chosen from the flock to die that the others might live, foreshadows Jesus' dying that all who would believe might live.


Leviticus 3:13 "And he shall lay his hand upon the head of it, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle the blood thereof upon the altar round about."


His right hand, according to the Targum of Jonathan. As before; the same directions are given for the killing of it, and for the sprinkling of its blood, as in the offerings of the bullock and lamb.


On the goat as well, we see the person offering laying his hand upon the goat to make the goat's blood represent him before God. Had the goat's blood or these other animal's blood not been shed, then the blood of the person would have been required. The blood of the animal was in place of the blood of the person. All of this was preparing the way for mankind to believe that Jesus represented each of us to God: and more than that, it was acceptable to God. One of the most vivid examples of this was when Abraham took his son Isaac to the mount to sacrifice him, and God stayed his hand and provided a substitute.


Genesis 22:13 "And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind [him] a ram caught in a thicket by his horns: and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son."


Leviticus 3:14 "And he shall offer thereof his offering, [even] an offering made by fire unto the LORD; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that [is] upon the inwards,"


The same rules are laid down about taking the fat off of several parts as in the sacrifice of the bullock. But nothing is said of the fat of the rump and tail, as is said of the lamb.


We covered this in a previous lesson, but God thought enough of it to repeat it, so we must look at it again to drive the lesson home. We see repeated over and over that the fat belongs to God. It is not enough that the fat was not to be eaten, but it was to be burned on the altar. The odor of the fat burning was a sweet savor to the LORD (Jehovah). The first mention of fat being offered to the Lord was when Abel offered to the Lord.


Genesis 4:4 "And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect unto Abel and to his offering:"


Leviticus 3:15 "And the two kidneys, and the fat that [is] upon them, which [is] by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away."


The parts that God required would not be what any of us would regard as the choice part of the meat. Perhaps, the training that these Hebrews gave their children passed down to our customs today. The spiritual lesson that I see in this is that God wants the inner man. To truly be a follower of the Lord, we must give Him our innermost being.


Leviticus 3:16 "And the priest shall burn them upon the altar: [it is] the food of the offering made by fire for a sweet savor: all the fat [is] the LORD'S."


Which shows that not the fat only, but the inwards and the kidneys, were burnt also. So Maimonides says, that the priest salted the parts, and burned them upon the altar. And the priests might not have the breast and shoulder (which were what belonged to them), until the parts were burnt.


"It is the food of the offering made by fire": Which the Lord ate of, or accepted of.


"For a sweet savor": As a type of the sweet smelling sacrifice of Christ, with which he is well pleased.


"All the fat is the Lord's": That is, all that was upon the parts mentioned in the several sacrifices of peace offerings, which was to be taken off and burnt. Though the Jewish writers understand it of all fat in general, and so interpret the law that follows.


We see in this Scripture that these items burned on the altar, are food for God. This bears out what we said about God, the priests, and the offeror all sharing in the food this animal provides.


Leviticus 3:17 "[It shall be] a perpetual statute for your generations throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither fat nor blood."


"Eat neither fat nor blood": The details given in the chapter distinctly define which fat was to be burned and not eaten, so that whatever adhered to other parts or was mixed with them might be eaten. As with many facets of the Mosaic legislation, there were underlying health benefits also.


The word perpetual in the verse above, means everlasting, eternal and beginning of the world without end. Statute here means custom, manner, ordinance, and site. This leaves no doubt that this request from God is still in effect today. God's people are never to eat fat or blood.


Leviticus Chapter 3 Continued Questions


1. The peace offering is what kind of offering?


2. What was to be done with all of the fat?


3. Who would sprinkle the blood on the altar?


4. Why was the rump of the sheep to be burned?


5. What sometimes causes us to be a glutton?


6. Who was to partake of this offering?


7. What shows that God consumed His part of this offering?


8. What unlikely animal foreshadows Jesus?


9. What does John 11:50 tell us about this offering?


10. Who gave council to the Jews that one should die for the people?


11. Where should this animal be killed?


12. What was the offeror to do before killing the animal?


13. What would the blood of this Goat do for the offeror?


14. In Genesis who did God provide a substitute for to keep him from sacrificing his son?


15. What was the substitute God provided?


16. What was all of this preparing mankind to believe?


17. Where was the first mention in the Bible of the fat of the animal being offered to God?


18. What is the spiritual message in the fact that God wanted the innards of the animal?


19. What tells us that this is food for God?


20. What does the word perpetual mean?


21. What does the word statute mean?


22. Are we to keep these ordinances today?





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Leviticus 4



Leviticus Chapter 4

Leviticus 4:1 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


The laws contained in the first three chapters, seem to have been delivered to Moses at one time. Here begin the laws of another day, which God delivered from between the cherubim.


It is important to remember that the people had been so frightened by the voice of God, that they had asked Moses to talk to God for them. We see here, that Moses is receiving the message from God for the people, as well as for himself.


Leviticus 4:2 "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a soul shall sin through ignorance against any of the commandments of the LORD [concerning things] which ought not to be done, and shall do against any of them:"


"Ignorance": The intended meaning is to stray into a sinful situation, but not necessarily to be taken completely by surprise (Num. 15:30-31), illustrates the defiant attitude of intentional sin.


"Not to be done ... against any": Sins of commission.


This statement tells us a great deal about sin. What you and I classify as sin, is not the only sin. God has a much higher standard about sin. Sins of ignorance happen many times with a brand new Christian. One of the things that quickly comes to mind in the discussion of sin is the Ten Commandments. When Jesus was speaking to the young man who wanted to know what he must do to be saved, the young man said he had kept the Ten Commandments from his youth. Jesus was pleased with the response, but He said, one thing you lack. You can easily see that just keeping the Ten Commandments is not enough. God looks upon the heart. Man must operate with a clear conscience and a pure heart. Jesus also said, if you look upon a woman to lust, you have committed adultery in your heart. With God (not man), just the desire in your heart to sin is sin. We will see over 600 ordinances in these next lessons. It is not humanly possible to keep up with all of them on a daily basis; and yet, if one is not properly done, it is sin. Somehow, there had to be a way out of all this, and that is what this lesson is all about.


Leviticus 4:3 "If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people; then let him bring for his sin, which he hath sinned, a young bullock without blemish unto the LORD for a sin offering."


"Priest that is anointed" (see Exodus 29:29 and Lev. 16:32), which defined this person as the High-Priest.


"According to the sin of the people": Only the High-Priest, due to his representative position, was capable of this type of guilt infusion. For example, Achan had brought about the defeat of Israel when he held back the spoils, but the entire nation was not executed, as was his family (compare Joshua 7:22-26).


We see in this, that the priest was a flesh and blood human being and he made mistakes too. This is not just any priest, this is speaking of the high priest, because it says the priest that was anointed. This appears that he might have even been bringing a message to the people that would cause them to sin. At any rate, his sin was associated with their sin (sin according to the sin of the people). A minister who sins, not only hurts himself, but the whole congregation. If you notice the offerings as we go along, you will note that the offering the anointed priest made was of greater value than the others. Jesus explains this very well when He said the following from Luke.


Luke 12:48 "But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few [stripes]. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more."


You see, the priest should know better than the people, so his offering should be more. We look at the statement (young bullock without blemish), so casually. This was serious business. This bullock must be the very best of the herd. This must be a male animal, it must not have any broken bones, it must be young enough not to have been with a cow. We could go on and on, because everything about this animal had to be perfect. This bullock was a shadow type of Jesus Christ's body.


Leviticus 4:4 "And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD; and shall lay his hand upon the bullock's head, and kill the bullock before the LORD."


As the bullock of the burnt offering (see notes on Lev 1:3).


"And shall lay his hand on the bullock's head": The Targum of Jonathan says his right hand (see notes on Lev. 1:4).


"And kill the bullock before the Lord": At the door of the tabernacle. That is, in the court, as Gersom observes. All this is typical of the imputation of sin to Christ, and of his death.


The only place of forgiveness for sin, is before the LORD, so he killed the animal before the LORD. Here again, we see the sin transferred to the bullock when he laid his hand upon the head of the animal. This, of course, is a type and shadow of Jesus, the head of the body of Christ, taking the sin of all who would believe upon His body on the cross. We could say that our sin was on His head. Sin must die. The bullock was killed, the body of Jesus also died. The wages of sin is death. Death of the substitute in both cases paid the price for the sinner. The difference, we have mentioned so many times, is that the animal's blood could not do away with sin, it could only cover it. Jesus' blood abolished sin, for all who will believe.


1 John 1:7 "But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin."


Leviticus 4:5 "And the priest that is anointed shall take of the bullock's blood, and bring it to the tabernacle of the congregation:"


Let out and received into a basin. This he did himself, and not another, for he offered for himself, and the blood was to make atonement for him.


"And bring it to the tabernacle of the congregation": Out of the court where the bullock was slain, into the holy place, where were the vail that divided between the Holy of Holies, and the altar of sweet incense, after mentioned. He actually went into the Holy Place.


As we said, the priest that is anointed is the high priest. Only the high priest must dare go into the Holiest place.


Leviticus 4:6 "And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times before the LORD, before the veil of the sanctuary."


"Seven times": The number of completion or perfection, indicating the nature of God's forgiveness (Psalm 103:12).


"The veil of the sanctuary": The veil marked the entry into the very presence of God in the Holy of Holies.


The number 7, as we have mentioned before, means spiritually complete. This sprinkling of the blood seven times then, shows that the blood is the reconciling factor, and the work is complete in it. This veil of course, is the veil which separates the holy place and the Holy of Holies. Inside the veil is a type and shadow of heaven and the throne of God.


Leviticus 4:7 "And the priest shall put [some] of the blood upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the LORD, which [is] in the tabernacle of the congregation; and shall pour all the blood of the bullock at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which [is at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation."


"Altar of sweet incense" (see Exodus 30:1-10). This altar was in the tabernacle proper before the veil. It was so close to the ark that Hebrews speaks of it as actually being in the Holy of Holies (Heb. 9:4). This altar was also sprinkled with blood on the Day of Atonement (Exodus 30:10).


"Altar of the burnt offering": The altar in the courtyard on which blood was normally splashed.


To put the blood on the horns of the altar, symbolized that the power is in the blood. We know that all through these studies we have recognized that the symbolic meaning of the horns is strength and power. The smoke that rises from the altar of incense is symbolic of the prayers of the saints. The power of the prayers that we send heavenward is in the shed blood of the LORD JESUS CHRIST. When we pray, we are to pray in His name and by the power of His blood. The remainder of the blood was poured out at the foot of the bronze altar where the burnt offering was made. This blood would be absorbed by the earth. Jesus shed His blood for the whole earth.


Leviticus 4:8-10 "And he shall take off from it all the fat of the bullock for the sin offering; the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that [is] upon the inwards," "And the two kidneys, and the fat that [is] upon them, which [is] by the flanks, and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away," "As it was taken off from the bullock of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt offering."


When the priest had killed the bullock, and sprinkled and poured the blood, as before commanded. He then cut up the bullock, and took out its inwards, and put them in a vessel. And salted them, and strewed them on the fires, and burnt them. And the fat of them, as he did with the sacrifice of the peace offerings. So that what is here said, and in the two next verses. (Lev. 4:9), is the same with what is ordered concerning them in (Lev. 3:3; see notes on 3:3; 3:4; 3:5). Jarchi and Gersom both observe that they agree, that as one brings peace into the world, so does the other.


I dare not separate these 3 verses. They are so tied together in the type and shadow they show us of Jesus. I have said so many times, that the body of Jesus was just a house for Jesus while He was on this earth dealing with mankind. The Spirit within that body was God. The Word of God took on the form of flesh and dwelt among us. He was Immanuel (God with us). The body was as all men who walked the earth. That is why He was born of woman; so that He might relate to all of us who are in flesh. Jesus took on the form of flesh that He might purchase His creation with His blood. To truly understand what I am saying here we must read John chapter one over and over. I will quote a few Scriptures that prove beyond a shadow of doubt that we are His creation.


John 1:1-3 "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." "The same was in the beginning with God." "All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made."


John 1:14 "And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth."


It was important for Him to take on the flesh, that He might be tempted in all areas we are tempted in, and yet He was without sin.


Notice in the verses from Leviticus above, that it was not the inner being that God was displeased with. You see, that which was inside the flesh of Jesus never stopped pleasing God. When Jesus took on the sin of the world, He took the sin upon His body, not into His body. The body of Jesus Christ died upon the cross, not the Spirit within that body. Jesus commanded His Spirit to leave the body and go to the throne of God.


Luke 23:46 "And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost."


You see, just as the offering of the bullock was divided here, so was the body and Spirit of Jesus at death. The bullock's insides are burned as a sweet smelling savor to God in the tabernacle, and the body is carried outside the city wall to be burned. There is a separation of the Spirit and body of Jesus here at the crucifixion. God turned away from the sin on Jesus' body; He did not turn His head from His Son within that body. On Him was laid the iniquities of us all.


Leviticus Chapter 4 Questions


1. How were these instructions passed to the people?


2. Why had they asked Moses to intercede for them with God?


3. What kind of sin is verse 2 speaking of?


4. When a person thinks of the sins they should not commit, what immediately comes to mind?


5. What does God look on to see if you are sinning?


6. Jesus said a man who looks upon a woman to lust has committed what sin?


7. How many ordinances will we get into in Leviticus?


8. How do we know the priest in verse 3 is the high priest?


9. What should this priest bring for sacrifice for his sin?


10. What were some of the qualifications of this animal supposed to be?


11. What was the name of this offering?


12. What happens many times when the minister sins?


13. What do we learn from Luke 12:48?


14. Who was the bullock a type and shadow of?


15. Where should the bullock be killed?


16. Our sin was upon the head of ________.


17. What does 1 John 1:7 teach us about Jesus?


18. Who is the only one who would dare to go into the Holy of Holies?


19. How many times was the blood sprinkled before the Lord?


20. What does that number symbolize?


21. What is, inside the veil, a type and shadow of?


22. Why was some of the blood put upon the horns of the altar?


23. What does the smoke that rises from the altar of incense symbolize?


24. What did the remainder of the blood being poured at the foot of the bronze altar indicate?


25. The _______ ____ _____ took on the form of flesh and dwelt among us.


26. Why is it so important to read the first chapter of John over and over?


27. What actually died upon the cross?


28. Where do we find the Scripture that explains that Jesus commanded His Spirit to leave His body and go to the Father?


29. What of the bullock offered was a sweet smelling savor to God?


30. What does that have to do with Jesus?


31. What happens to the flesh of the bullock?


32. When God turned away from Jesus on the cross, what was He really turning away from?




Leviticus Chapter 4 Continued

In the previous lesson, we have been looking at the sin offering. This is a very important offering. The flesh offered in this offering is a shadow of the flesh of Jesus Christ. We noted in the last lesson, how Jesus took the sin of all the world upon His body on the cross at Calvary. Though His flesh became sin, that sin might die on the cross, the Spirit within that body was God the Son.


Leviticus 4:11 "And the skin of the bullock, and all his flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and his inwards, and his dung,"


"Dung": This term identifies the major internal organs of an animal, including the intestines' waste content.


Leviticus 4:12 "Even the whole bullock shall he carry forth without the camp unto a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn him on the wood with fire: where the ashes are poured out shall he be burnt."


"Carry forth without the camp": This was a symbolic gesture of removing the sign from the people (compare Heb. 11:11-13 in reference to Christ).


The act of carrying "forth without the camp unto a clean place" and then being burned with "fire" seems to distinguish it from the burnt offering. Both were holy, but their meaning might have been confused. One symbolized dedication, the other expiation. Both were acceptable to God. "Three examples of offenses that required a sin offering are given (in 5:1-13). The first is that of one who withholds evidence by failing to "utter it". He had to "confess that he hath sinned" and then make appropriate restitution (6:5). The second offense involved contact with either unclean animals or persons (compare chapter 11). The third example was one in which someone pronounced aloud ("with his lips"), any kind of rash oath, perhaps without realizing fully the implications of what was being said. The combination of "evil ... good", is an ancient expression denoting totality. Hence the phrase could be translated "a rash oath to do anything at all" (compare 5:1-7).


We must remember here, that this is the sin offering. This animal's flesh is accursed, because it took the sin on its body.


Galatians 3:13 "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed [is] every one that hangeth on a tree:"


The flesh of the Lord Jesus Christ took upon it the curse that belonged to us. This flesh which represented the sin of the whole world, must die. It is strange that all the time it was accursed it was also holy. The flesh of Jesus was holy, yet He took our curse upon His body, that we might receive His righteousness.


1 Peter 2:24 "Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed."


Verses 13-21: Sacrifices for the sin of the congregation were to follow essentially the same procedure as that for the sin of priests (4:3-12).


Leviticus 4:13 "And if the whole congregation of Israel sin through ignorance, and the thing be hid from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done [somewhat against] any of the commandments of the LORD [concerning things] which should not be done, and are guilty;"


The sin offering was not a voluntary sacrifice, as were the three sweet savor oblations in chapters 1-3. This offering was required of all: priests (verses 3-12), the congregation as a whole (verses 13-21), rulers (verses 22-26), and common individuals (verses 27-35). It made atonement for sins done "through ignorance" (bishgagah) or unintentionally or inadvertently. A sin of this type may result from two causes: negligence or ignorance. Either the perpetrator knows the law but unintentionally violates it, as in the case of accidental homicide (Num. 35:22-28; Deut. 19:4-10; Joshua 20:2-6, 9); or he acts without knowing he had done wrong. Some illustrations of these sins would be: (Gen. 20:9; Abimelech's complaint to Abraham). And (Num. 22:34); Balaam: "I have sinned; for I knew not that thou stoodest in the way against me". In opposition to these sins are those committed with a "high hand" (Num. 15:30), for which there is no atonement by any means of sacrifice (Heb. 10:28).


Leviticus 4:14 "When the sin, which they have sinned against it, is known, then the congregation shall offer a young bullock for the sin, and bring him before the tabernacle of the congregation."


Any of the commandments of the Lord forbidding such a thing to be done.


"Is known": Is made known to them by the priest, or any other, so that they are convinced that what has been done is wrong, though done through ignorance.


"Then the congregation shall offer a young bullock for the sin, and bring him before the tabernacle of the congregation": The same offering with that of the anointed priest, he being, as Aben Ezra on the place observes, equal to all Israel.


The first thing we must note here, is that the offering for sin for the whole congregation is no more than the offering just the priest had to offer for his sin. This tells me again, how much more severe is the punishment for those who sin with full knowledge.


I believe a message that we must see in this pertains to our day as well. We have allowed materialism to become a god for us. Our people are not speaking up against the filth that is on the television and in the movie houses. Many things are being done in the name of art and are being accepted by Christians, even inside the church. We could say then, that we are sinning by omission. We should stand up against these things, if we are to be found not guilty in God's sight. The very same things that God found wrong in Leviticus are still wrong in His sight. Have we forgotten that we serve a holy God? We must repent; as a country and as believers in Christ.


2 Chronicles 7:14 "If my people, which are called by my name, shall humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways; then will I hear from heaven, and will forgive their sin, and will heal their land."


America, and most of the known world, have wandered away from God. Come back to Him now while there is still time. Read your Bible, and find out what God's plan for your life is. So much is being done in the church today in the name of art. Re-examine your stand on these things. Judgement begins in the house of God.


1 Peter 4:17 "For the time [is come] that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if [it] first [begin] at us, what shall the end [be] of them that obey not the gospel of God?"


Are we showing enough respect for a holy God?


Leviticus 4:15 "And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD: and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD."


These must be two at least, some say three, and some say five; the more generally received notion is, that they were three of the Sanhedrim; though the Targum of Jonathan makes them to be the twelve rulers of the twelve tribes.


"And the bullock shall be killed before the Lord": In the court near the altar of burnt offering, either by a priest, or Levite, or by a butcher, as the above Targum expresses it.


These elders here, are twelve men who have been chosen to represent the whole group. Twelve, you remember from a previous lesson is the number which represents the whole; such as the 12 apostles. They were all to lay their hands upon the head of the bullock, thereby transferring the sins of all the people on the bullock.


Leviticus 4:16 "And the priest that is anointed shall bring of the bullock's blood to the tabernacle of the congregation:"


That is, the chief priest, as the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan explain it.


"To the tabernacle of the congregation": As he brought the blood of his own bullock (Lev. 4:5). From there to the (Lev. 4:16), an account is given of the same rites to be observed in the sin offering, for the congregation, as for the anointed priest (see notes on Lev. 4:6; 4:7; 4:12).


We have mentioned before, that the priest that is anointed, is the high priest in authority at present.


Leviticus 4:17 "And the priest shall dip his finger [in some] of the blood, and sprinkle [it] seven times before the LORD, [even] before the veil."


"And sprinkle it": It was not to be poured out there, but sprinkled only. For the cleansing virtue of the blood of Christ was sufficiently represented by sprinkling. It was sprinkled seven times. This signified the perfect satisfaction Christ made, and the complete cleansing of our souls thereby.


Leviticus 4:18 "And he shall put [some] of the blood upon the horns of the altar which [is] before the LORD, that [is] in the tabernacle of the congregation, and shall pour out all the blood at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, which [is at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation."


The priest then took the blood into the holy place, where, after dipping his finger in it seven times, he sprinkled the drops seven times before the veil. This done, he returned to the court of the priests, and ascending the altar, put some portion upon its horns; then he poured it out at the foot of the altar.


We touched on all of this when we dealt with the sin offering for the priest. We see that the offering for sin does not vary. We will touch again on one or two points here. The high priest first offered for himself, but then he offers for the congregation. Remember 7 means spiritually complete. We also know that the symbolic meaning of putting the blood on the horns is (power in the blood). The blood being poured out at the foot of the altar shows this blood is for all the earth, for whosoever will accept it as their sacrifice.


Leviticus 4:19 "And he shall take all his fat from him, and burn [it] upon the altar."


The fat was the only part of the animal which was offered on the altar; for the carcass, with its appurtenances and internal organs, were carried without the camp, into the place where the ashes were deposited, and there consumed with fire.


This fat being burned, made a sweet savor to God. We remember this represents the fact that Jesus glorified the Father in the crucifixion. Jesus was obedient to the Father even unto death.


Leviticus 4:20-21 "And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them." "And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn him as he burned the first bullock: it [is] a sin offering for the congregation."


Let us never forget, that this sin offering, is a type and shadow of what Jesus did for us on the cross. (One for all), had been taught even in the Old Testament. We will see from the following Scripture that the Jews had been taught from the beginning, that one should die for all.


John 11:49-50 "And one of them, [named] Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all," "Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not."


Just as in the Scripture, one should die that the whole congregation might live. We know that the Jews gave several reasons why Jesus was not to be crucified inside the city wall, but the real reason, which they were apparently unaware of, was the fact that He was the sin offering and had to fulfill every aspect of that offering.


Leviticus Chapter 4 Continued Questions


1. The flesh in the sin offering symbolizes what?


2. Jesus for a moment on the cross, became what for us?


3. What was the Spirit within that body of Jesus?


4. Where was the flesh of this bullock to be burned?


5. This animal's flesh is ___________, because it took the sin on its body.


6. Galatians 3:13 tells us that Christ redeemed us from what?


7. We being ______ to sins, should live unto _________________.


8. By whose stripes are we healed?


9. What are some of the conditions of the sin in verses 13 and 14?


10. What is our society allowing to become a god?


11. What does the author believe is the answer for all people?


12. Where does judgement begin?


13. What shall the end be for those who obey not the gospel?


14. Who lays their hands upon the offering for the congregation?


15. Why were there twelve instead of some other number?


16. Who brings the bullock's blood to the Holy Place?


17. How many times does he sprinkle the blood before the Lord?


18. What does the putting of the blood on the horns symbolize?


19. Why did he pour the left-over blood at the foot of the altar?


20. What does the burning of the fat do?


21. What is the sin offering, here?


22. What was the name of the high priest who said that it was expedient for one to die for all?


23. What was the real reason that Jesus was crucified outside the city wall?




Leviticus Chapter 4 Second Continued

We have been looking at the sin offering in the last few lessons. We saw that the sin offering for the priest was the same offering as the offering for the whole church. In this lesson, we will look at the sin offering of a ruler, and the sin offering of the common people. We could relate this to our governors, mayors, senators, representatives, or even the president. We will find that their offering is different. Perhaps this is because the ruler affects the lives of all the people he represents. A good ruler will carry out the will of God, while he is in office. We find most politicians not seeking God's will, but the will of those who put him in office. Little do they realize that the powers that be, are there because God put them there, not the people.


Verses 22-26: These are sacrifices for the sin of a ruler. The blood of the sacrifice was not sprinkled in the Holy Place, as for the priest or congregation (4:6, 17), but only on the altar of burnt offering.


Leviticus 4:22 "When a ruler hath sinned, and done [somewhat] through ignorance [against] any of the commandments of the LORD his God [concerning things] which should not be done, and is guilty;"


Or "prince", the "nasi". One that is lifted up above others in honor, power, and authority, or that bears the weight of government. The word comes from one which signifies to lift up, or to bear. It may be understood of a governor of a family, or of a tribe, as Aben Ezra observes. And so in the Talmud it is said, it means the prince of a tribe, such as Nachson the son of Amminadab, prince of the tribe of Judah. Maimonides says a king is designed, over whom none has power. And so Gersom on the place, who observes, that David the king is called a prince (Ezek. 34:24).


"And done somewhat through ignorance against any of the commandments of the Lord his God": The phrase, "his God", is here added, and is not used neither of the anointed priest, nor of the congregation, nor of one of the common people. Only of the prince, to show, that though he is above others, God is above him, and he is accountable to him. He is his God, of whom he is, and by whom he rules. Wherefore if he breaks any of his commandments, though ignorantly, he must bring a sacrifice for it.


"Concerning things which should not be done, and is guilty": Of transgressing negative precepts, which are as binding on him as others.


In this verse above, we see that this ruler believed in God; (the Lord his God). We must also see that this is not a deliberate sin, but a sin through ignorance. The third thing we must see is that he really did sin and he is guilty.


Leviticus 4:23 "Or if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, come to his knowledge; he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a male without blemish:"


Or rather, "and if his sin", etc. Either by means of others informing him of it, or of himself calling to mind what he has done, and considering it to be a transgression of the law.


"He shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a male without blemish": His offering was to be a "kid of the goats". A fat and a large one; because, as Baal Hatturim observes, he ate fat things every day. And to distinguish it from the offering of one of the common people; and "without blemish"; as all sacrifices were, that they might be typical of the offering of Christ without spot.


When I see a goat, it reminds me of the separation of the sheep and goats in heaven. Perhaps the offering of this goat here tells us that the ruler is a ruler in worldly things, not so much the spiritual things. He is possibly not of the sheepfold. The sheep follow the great Shepherd Jesus Christ. This above is a male goat which has horns. The horns, of course denote strength. A goat's horns would denote world power. We see that possibly, this is a sin against the world and not of the congregation.


Leviticus 4:24 "And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt offering before the LORD: it [is] a sin offering."


His right hand, as the Targum of Jonathan (see notes on Lev. 1:4).


"And kill it": Not the prince, but the priest after mentioned, or the butcher, as the same Targum. That is, the priest shall kill it; for it was not lawful for any out of that office to kill the beast.


"In the place where they kill the burnt offering before the Lord": In the court on the north side of the altar (see Lev. 1:11).


"It is a sin offering": An offering for his sin of ignorance, or "sin". So Christ our offering is said to be (2 Cor. 5:21).


We see that the goat is to be killed just inside the tabernacle of the congregation at the bronze altar. This ruler, even though he rules in things of the world, is still answerable to God for the way he governs. There is no one on this earth, who does not have to answer to a higher power. The most powerful king in all the world has to answer to God for his actions. This sin offering then is possibly, for his sins in regard to the way he governs.


Leviticus 4:25 "And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt offering."


With the finger of his right hand, as the Talmudists observe, and Gersom on the place. The priest first received the blood into a basin or ministering vessel, and then dipped the finger of his right hand into it, that next the thumb.


"And put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering": The four horns of it. In this there was a difference between the sacrifice of the anointed priest and of the congregation, and this of the ruler. The blood of the former was put upon the horns of the altar of incense, this upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering.


"And shall pour out his blood at the bottom of the altar of burnt offering": The South bottom of it. The order of the priest's proceeding in putting the blood was different from that used in putting it on the horns of the altar of incense. Here he first put the blood upon the southeast horn, then upon the northeast, next upon the northwest, and then upon the southwest. And upon the bottom of that horn where he finished, he poured the remainder of the blood, which was the southern bottom.


One of the most apparent differences in this offering is that the blood is not carried into the presence of God, as the other 2 were. I see in this, that this is a worldly matter, not a heavenly matter. We see in the other offerings that the blood was taken to the veil of separation and sprinkled 7 times before the Lord. This was to make mankind able to go into the presence of the Father. This is not done in this instance. The blood is applied to the horns where the burnt offering is made. This then, would indicate that this offering is for the outer court.


Blood on the horns indicates the power of this ruler, in dealing with the people, is ordained of God. This was not for man to go to heaven, but had to do with this earth. I cannot help but think that this has to do with the thousand year reign of Jesus Christ on the earth. He will reign as King of kings and Lord of lords, here on the earth for 1000 years.


Revelation 17:14 "These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him [are] called, and chosen, and faithful."


Revelation 19:16 And he hath on [his] vesture and on his thigh a name written," KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS."


Revelation 20:6 "Blessed and holy [is] he that hath part in the first resurrection: on such the second death hath no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with him a thousand years."


Without the shedding of blood, there is no remission of sin. We see the blood not only applied on the horns of the altar, but poured out at the base of the altar on the ground. We still see the substitute of the goat's blood for the sin of the ruler. Jesus shed His blood for the whole earth. We see this in the blood being poured out at the foot of the altar and being absorbed in the earth. Horns denote strength, and we see by this that the strength here is from God.


Leviticus 4:26 "And he shall burn all his fat upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings: and the priest shall make an atonement for him as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him."


Of burnt offering, that is, the priest shall do it.


"As the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings (see Lev. 3:3).


"And the priest shall make an atonement for him as concerning his sin": In a typical way, directing to the great sacrifice of Christ, which is the only real atonement and propitiation for sin. The Vulgate Latin, Syriac, and Arabic versions, render, "the priest shall pray for him": for the pardon of his sin.


"And it shall be forgiven him": Not for the prayers of the priest, nor for the sacrifice offered up, but for the sake of Christ. The antitype of such sacrifices, and when faith was exercised on him. Or the meaning is, he shall not be punished for it.


This fat burned, is a sweet savor to God. We see that this offering is accepted by God. We know that this offering does not open the veil into the most Holy Place, as in the other offering. It appears that this offering is for blessings of this earth, since the blood was not sprinkled 7 times before the veil. God accepts this offering and the one who offered is forgiven. Blessings from God can be two-fold. The right hand blessing was always a spiritual blessing and was really a promise of eternal life in heaven. The left hand blessing was a blessing for the earth. The patriarchs blessed their children and grandchildren in this manner. Possibly, the two sons of Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael, were the best example of this. Isaac was known as the son of the spirit and Ishmael was the son of the flesh. Both were blessed, but Isaac's blessing was for all generations of believers in the Spirit. Ishmael's blessings were just for the earth.


Leviticus 4:27 "And if any one of the common people sin through ignorance, while he doeth [somewhat against] any of the commandments of the LORD [concerning things] which ought not to be done, and be guilty;"


Or, "if one soul of the people of the earth". That is, a single person, and so is distinguished from the congregation, one of the common sort of people. However, is neither a high priest, nor a prince, or king, but either a common priest, or Levite, or Israelite. No man is free from sin; all sorts of persons, of all ranks and degrees. High and low, rich and poor, men in office, civil or ecclesiastical, or in whatsoever state of life, are liable to sin. And do sin continually, either ignorantly or willingly. And Christ is a sacrifice for all sins and for all sorts of sinners.


"Whilst he doeth somewhat": etc. (see notes on Lev. 4:2; 4:13; 4:22).


Common in the Scripture above means country, earth, grounds, world, or wilderness. This seems strange, but it gives meaning to this Scripture. The people mentioned in the Scripture above then would be earthly people. They are Israelites however, since these are Israel's descendants who left Egypt headed for the Promised Land. We might think of these, in our day, of people who say they are Christians, but really are not interested in God's purpose for life. They are caught up in the world so much that their belief in Christ is secondary to them. They would not find it necessary to study God's Word, or to get personally involved in His work. It would be really easy for them to sin without knowing they were sinning, since they had not studied the Bible very much.


Leviticus 4:28 "Or if his sin, which he hath sinned, come to his knowledge: then he shall bring his offering, a kid of the goats, a female without blemish, for his sin which he hath sinned."


So that he is convinced that he has sinned.


"Then he shall bring his offering": To the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to the priest there:


"A kid of the goats": A young goat.


"A female without blemish": And so inferior to the offering of the ruler or prince. For the characters of men are aggravations of their sins, and sacrifices were to be in some measure answerable to them, and suitable to their circumstances.


"For the sin which he hath sinned": To atone for it in a typical way.


Notice in these sin offerings, how the priest was required to bring the most offering. Then notice the congregation, who knew the will of God was required to bring the next best offering. The ruler brought a lesser gift than the priest, and now the common people brought an even lesser offering. The ruler's offering had to be more, because his sin affected more people than just the common people. A female animal had less strength than a male animal, and would therefore be correct to bring in this instance, since the ruler was stronger than the common people. Regardless of how poor a person was; he still must bring an offering to the Lord. The shedding of blood was required for a sin offering always. Even though this goat is a female, the shed blood of this animal cleansing from sin still shadowed the blood of the Lord Jesus Christ. It is not necessary for a shadow to be the exact same as the one it shadowed. It must just remind us of the one being shadowed. Notice also that even this lesser offering must be without blemish.


Leviticus 4:29 "And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and slay the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering."


His right hand, as the Targum of Jonathan. Not the priest that shall offer it, but the man that has sinned, that brings it, thereby confessing his sin, and transferring it to the sacrifice.


"And slay the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering": That is, on the north side of the altar.


We see one more time, the transfer of the sin to the animal, by the laying of the hand upon its head. The shed blood is the price to be paid for the sin of the person.


Leviticus 4:30 "And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar."


So that all the preceding actions, the bringing the offering, the putting the hand upon the head of it, and slaying it, were done by the man that sinned. Of this and what follows here and in the next verse (Leviticus 4:31; see notes on Lev. 4:25; 4:26).


This is the same as the offering for the ruler. The power is in the blood.


Leviticus 4:31 "And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest shall burn [it] upon the altar for a sweet savor unto the LORD; and the priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him."


(See notes on Lev. 4:25-26).


This offering again, is the same as the offering for the ruler. God accepts this fat burned as a sweet savor to God.


Leviticus 4:32 "And if he bring a lamb for a sin offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish."


As he might if he would. The Jews observe, that in all places a lamb is put before a goat, as being more excellent in its kind. But here it is mentioned after, which shows, they say, that they are equally alike.


"He shall bring it a female without blemish": Typical of Christ the Lamb of God, without spot and without blemish (1 Peter 1:19).


This again, is just showing that these common people were not required to bring as valuable a gift as was required for the ruler. We also can look and see that there were fewer restrictions on the common people, than on the ruler. To rule requires self-denial and a stricter way of life than for the common people.


Leviticus 4:33 "And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin offering, and slay it for a sin offering in the place where they kill the burnt offering."


On the head of the lamb, as on the head of the goat. Even his right hand, as the above Targum, as before.


"And slay it for a sin offering, in the place where they kill the burnt offering": For if it was not slain for a sin offering, but for something else. Or on any other account, as for a burnt offering, it was not right.


Leviticus 4:34 "And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of the altar:"


(See notes on Leviticus 4:25-26).


Leviticus 4:35 "And he shall take away all the fat thereof, as the fat of the lamb is taken away from the sacrifice of the peace offerings; and the priest shall burn them upon the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the LORD: and the priest shall make an atonement for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven him."


(See notes on Leviticus 4:25-26).


In each of these verses about the offerings of the common people, the offering is the same, except a female goat or sheep could be offered, whereas for the ruler, it must be a male goat. We do not see instructions in this to take the animal outside of town to burn the meat, as we did in the case of the congregation's and the priest's offering.


Leviticus Chapter 4 Second Continued Questions


1. How did the sin offering for the priest differ from the sin offering for the congregation?


2. Describe a good ruler. Who in our society today could we relate the ruler to? Who do most politicians today try to please?


3. In verse 22, what tells us that this ruler believes in God?


4. His sin must not be a deliberate sin, but a sin of ______________.


5. He has not been falsely accused, he is __________.


6. What is the sin offering the ruler should bring?


7. What does the author believe shows that his rule is a worldly rule?


8. Horns denote what?


9. A goat's horns then would denote what?


10. Are rulers in high authority exempt from worshipping God?


11. Where is the 2 places the priest put the blood of the animal?


12. What is one of the most apparent differences with this offering and the offering of the priest and the congregation?


13. Blood on the horns indicate that this ruler's power comes from where?


14. How many years will Jesus reign on the earth?


15. What will be His title then, when He comes to reign?


16. Who are the blessed and holy in verse 6 of Revelation chapter 20?


17. Without the shedding of ________, there is no remission of sin.


18. What was to be burned on the altar of the sin offering of the ruler?


19. What kind of blessing was the right hand blessing?


20. What kind of blessing was the left hand blessing?


21. In the Old Testament, what 2 sons were a good example of the right and left hand blessing?


22. What does the word, common, mean in Leviticus chapter 4 verse 27?


23. How can we relate the common people here and the people of our day?


24. What was the offering the common people could bring?


25. How is it permissible for this female goat's blood to shadow the blood of Jesus?


26. What is done by the person offering the goat that shows the transfer of the person's sin to the goat?


27. Who was to put the blood of the animal on the horns of the altar?


28. For the common people, what type of lamb was permissible to bring?


29. What instructions had been omitted in the sin offering for the ruler and common people that had been included in the sin offering for the priest and the congregation?





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Leviticus 5



Leviticus Chapter 5

We have been studying in the last lessons, sins of ignorance, now we will get into another type of sin and the offerings made for them.


Verses 1-13: Dealing with unintentional sins continues with an emphasis on sins of omission (verses 1-4). Lambs/goats (verse 6), birds (verses 7-10), or flour (verses 11-13), were acceptable sacrifices.


Verses 1-5: This call to confession named a few examples of violations for which penitence was the right response:


(1) Withholding evidence (verse 1);


(2) Touching something unclean (verses 2-3); and


(3) Rash oath making (verse 4).


Leviticus 5:1 "And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swearing, and [is] a witness, whether he hath seen or known [of it]; if he do not utter [it], then he shall bear his iniquity."


"The voice of swearing ... witness": "A witness who did not come forward to testify was sinning when he had actually seen a violation or had firsthand knowledge, such as hearing the violator confess to the sin.


This lesson will deal more specifically with sin than the last few lessons. The Scripture above seems to indicate a concealment of knowledge. To witness a crime and not report it would possibly be the sin above. In our courts today, to conceal that type of evidence could make you an accessory to the crime. We can easily see from this, that when we see a crime committed, we must report it. To not report a sin in the verse above, would cause you to be guilty, as well as the person who committed the crime. And you would have to be forgiven the same as the one committing the crime.


Leviticus 5:2 "Or if a soul touch any unclean thing, whether [it be] a carcase of an unclean beast, or a carcase of unclean cattle, or the carcase of unclean creeping things, and [if] it be hidden from him; he also shall be unclean, and guilty."


Meaning an Israelite, for only such were bound by this law, which pronounced a person unclean that touched anything that was so in a ceremonial sense. This is the general, including whatsoever by the law was unclean. The particulars follow:


"Whether it be a carcass of an unclean beast": As the camel, the coney, the hare, and the swine (Lev. 11:2).


"Or a carcass of unclean cattle": As the horse, and the ass, which were unclean for food, and their dead carcasses not to be touched (Lev. 11:26).


"Or the carcass of unclean creeping things": Such as are mentioned in (Lev.11:29).


"And if it be hidden from him": That he has touched them; or the uncleanness contracted by touching, he having inadvertently done it. Or being ignorant of the law concerning such uncleanness.


"He also shall be unclean": In a ceremonial sense, by thus touching them.


"And guilty": Of a breach of the command which forbids the touching of them. This is by way of prolepsis or anticipation. For as yet the law concerning unclean beasts, and creeping things, and pollution by touching them, was not given. Jarchi and Gersom interpret this guilt, of eating of holy things, and going into the sanctuary when thus defiled. In the Jewish Misnah it is said, the word "hidden" is twice used, to show that he is guilty, for the ignorance of uncleanness, and for the ignorance of the sanctuary.


Carcase means dead body. If the animal died of its own volition (was not killed), then it possibly was diseased. If we look carefully into all of these instructions, we will see that God did everything for a specific reason, and it was usually for the benefit of man. If a person accidently touched it, the person could still take a disease from it. You can see why this instruction was given. We will get into the way a person could purify themselves when they touched a carcase in a later lesson.


Leviticus 5:3 "Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsoever uncleanness [it be] that a man shall be defiled withal, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth [of it], then he shall be guilty."


The dead body of a man, or the bone of a dead body. Or a grave, or any menstruous person.


"Whatsoever uncleanness it be that a man shall be defiled withal": Not morally, but ceremonially.


"And it be hid from him": He is not sensible that he has touched any thing ceremonially unclean.


"When he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty": Acknowledge his guilt, and offer a sacrifice for it, as after directed.


This just specifies, that the same procedure is to be taken with a dead man as was taken with the dead animal. It goes even further in stating that the man does not have to be dead. Any uncleanness, such as an issue of blood, would be under this ruling as well. We know today how important this is, because of all the diseases that are transferred from one person to another through blood, or in some cases just by touching them, such as shaking hands. Many in our society today have been so frightened of germs that they are afraid to go out of their house for anything. God does not want us to live in fear, but He does want us to practice cleanliness.


Leviticus 5:4 "Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with [his] lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever [it be] that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth [of it], then he shall be guilty in one of these."


"Swear" "Speaking thoughtlessly" suggests a reckless oath for good or bad, i.e., an oath the speaker should not or could not keep.


We are cautioned by Jesus not to swear at all in the following two verses.


Matthew 5:34 "But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne:"


Matthew 5:36 "Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black."


The very best policy, is to do just what Jesus said. Don't swear, and then you will not be held accountable for what you swear. One of the most terrible oaths taken in the Bible is Herod's in the next few verses.


Matthew 14:6-11 "But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod." "Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask." "And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger." "And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded [it] to be given [her]." "And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison." "And his head was brought in a charger, and given to the damsel: and she brought [it] to her mother."


This is one oath that Herod wished he had never taken. Do not take an oath lightly.


Verses 5-13: Like the burnt offering, the required sin offering provided options for the poor if a lamb was too expensive.


Leviticus 5:5 "And it shall be, when he shall be guilty in one of these [things], that he shall confess that he hath sinned in that [thing]:"


"He shall confess": Confession must accompany the sacrifice as the outward expression of a repentant heart which openly acknowledged agreement with God concerning sin. Sacrifice minus true faith, repentance, and obedience was hypocrisy (compare Psalm 26:4; Isa. 9:17; Amos 5:21-26).


Leviticus 5:6 "And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin."


"Trespass offering": This special ceremony concerns sins involving dishonesty, theft, deceit, or lying to cover up other sins. The guilty party, if repentant, can receive forgiveness, but is expected to make restitution. Christ died for our sins of ignorance, our unintentional sins as well as our intentional sins (6:1-7). All sin can be forgiven through His sacrifice, but true and sincere repentance should result in restitution.


The very first thing a man or woman should do, then or now when they have sinned, is to confess the sin and ask for forgiveness. In the case of the Jews, who were under the law, there was a specific offering to be made. They would come to the tabernacle and place their hands on the head of the offering, confess their sin publicly, and then ask for forgiveness. He would kill the offering (in this case a female lamb or goat). Their prayer for forgiveness would be very similar to one we might pray today. They might say: Lord forgive me, for I have sinned, please accept my prayer and bring me into right standing with God. You may read more detail in Numbers, on these sins and their offerings (Numbers chapters 5, 6, and 7 go more into detail on this). In Numbers, you find that this sinner might be male or female.


Leviticus 5:7 "And if he be not able to bring a lamb, then he shall bring for his trespass, which he hath committed, two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, unto the LORD; one for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering."


He is not possessed of a lamb, nor able to purchase one.


"Then he shall bring for his trespass which he hath committed, two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, unto the Lord": Either the one or the other. These were common, and in great plenty in the land of Israel, as Maimonides observes. Which was the reason of their being ordered, since they could be gotten cheap. The turtledoves were larger, as the Targum of Jonathan calls them, being older, and the pigeons lesser, being young. Or the one were grown, and not little, and the other little, and not grown, as the Jewish writers observe. And either of them were proper emblems of Christ in his purity, innocence, and meekness, by whom an atonement is made both for the rich and poor.


"One for a sin offering, and the other for a burnt offering": One of the turtle doves or pigeons, whichever were brought, was offered up as a sin offering, and the other that remained was offered up as a burnt offering. So that the poor man had two sorts of offerings out of what he brought, when the rich had but one. And may denote the completeness of his sacrifice, and the full atonement made by it (see note on 1:3-17).


When this speaks of not being able, it means they are poor. A sin offering is not a freewill offering. It is a required offering for sin. They must bring something, even if it is a fowl. The sins in the previous verses are very different, but all are sin and must be atoned for. To keep company with a robber, or even worse, makes you a robber by witness. To casually swear to something could be avoided by not speaking rashly. To be in close association with killing diseases could make you very sick. You can easily see from this that, all of these particular warnings that are given to mankind are for his own benefit.


Leviticus 5:8 "And he shall bring them unto the priest, who shall offer [that] which [is] for the sin offering first, and wring off his head from his neck, but shall not divide [it] asunder:"


Either two turtledoves, or two young pigeons.


"Who shall offer that which is for the sin offering first": That which is chosen for it, as the Targum of Jonathan. And this choice was made, not by the priest, but by the man that brought the offering. Who separated it, and said, lo, this is a sin offering, and after that said, lo, this is a burnt offering. The sin offering was offered first, which was to make atonement for sin. And then the burnt offering, to denote the divine acceptance of it. And so, Ben Gersom observes, it was proper to offer the sin offering first, to atone for his sin, that after he (God), was appeased this way, he might receive his gift. For the burnt offering was as a gift. Jarchi compares it to an advocate, who first goes in to appease, and when he has appeased, the gift goes in after him.


"And wring off his head from his neck, but shall not divide it asunder": Be it a turtledove or a young pigeon, so it was to be served. The head was not to be separated from the body, but was nipped by the nail of the priest "in" the neck, as it might be rendered. Over against the neck, as the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan render it. The hinder part, or what is behind the throat, as Jarchi and Ben Molech interpret it. So that the part which was nipped was the neck. And this nip was made so large, as that the blood was let out by it, as appears from the following verse (Lev. 5:9). And yet the head was not divided from the body. The head hung by a piece of skin on the back part. Of the manner of performing this, and the mystery of it (see notes on Lev. 1:15).


We went into this in detail in a previous lesson, but I will say again here, that this shadows Jesus Christ our Savior. Jesus had no broken bones. This fowl will be offered with its wings open wide on the wood, with no bones broken.


Leviticus 5:9 "And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the sin offering upon the side of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the bottom of the altar: it [is] a sin offering."


Or "wall". It is asked, "what is the wall at which the rest of the blood is wrung out? This is the lower wall, namely, the half of the height of the altar below, under the thread (of scarlet that goes round the middle of the altar). That the rest of the blood may be squeezed at the bottom of the altar, and because of this the sin offering of the fowl is below, "that is, the sprinkling of its blood. And so Ben Gersom observes; from hence we learn, says he, that the sprinkling of the sin offering of the fowl was in the lower part of the altar. And I think this sprinkling, adds he, was not in the length, but in the breadth.


"And the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the bottom of the altar. The blood sprinkled was that which dropped from it when nipped by the priest. This here was squeezed out by him, and was shed at the foot of the altar. So that the altar had all the blood, and nothing but the blood of the fowl, all the rest belonged to the priest. This might be an emblem both of the drops of blood which fell from Christ in the garden, and of the shedding of his blood upon the cross, whereby remission of sin was obtained, and atonement made.


"It is a sin offering": An offering whereby sin was typically expiated and stoned.


We see the symbolism of the blood He shed for all who are on the earth, by the blood being wrung out at the foot of the altar. The earth swallowing up the blood, shows that Jesus died for whosoever will in all the earth.


Leviticus 5:10 "And he shall offer the second [for] a burnt offering, according to the manner: and the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall be forgiven him."


That is, the second turtledove or young pigeon, after the other was made a sin offering. And the manner according to which this was offered was not according to the rite or manner of the bird chosen first for a sin offering, as the Targum of Jonathan. But according to the burnt offering of the fowl in (Lev. 1:15), so Jarchi and Ben Gersom.


"And the priest shall make an atonement for him, for his sin which he had sinned, and it shall be forgiven him": Upon the atonement made; and so forgiveness of sin with God proceeds upon the atonement made by the blood of Christ (Heb. 9:22). God never took one step towards it, without a regard to Christ the propitiation for sin. He promised it with a view to him. There is no instance of pardon under the Old Testament but in this way. And God always has respect to Christ in pardon, it is for his sake. And this way of forgiveness best provides for the glory of the divine perfections. There can be no better way, or infinite wisdom would have used it. There could be no other way, considering the council and covenant of peace. To pardon, without atonement and satisfaction, is not consistent with the purity, justice, and veracity of God. And to observe this great truth, the phrase is afterwards frequently repeated.


The word atonement in the Scripture above, I would remind you means to cover or cancel. The blood of an animal can only cover the sin. The blood of Jesus Christ cancels sin out. In the case of this sinner, he or she will have to come back every time they sin, but the Christian is forgiven for all his sins at once. Jesus sacrificed once for us that we might be made His righteousness.


Leviticus Chapter 5 Questions


1. In Leviticus 5:1, if a person heard someone swearing and did not report it, who was guilty?


2. What type sin would this be classified as?


3. In our day, if a person is with another person who commits a crime and does not report it to the authorities, what crime is the witness guilty of?


4. What are the unclean things listed in verse 2?


5. What is a carcase?


6. What was, possibly, the reason that God said not to touch dead animals?


7. The instructions for touching a man or woman, was not just about touching a dead body, but also what?


8. What are some of the ways diseases are caught today?


9. God does not want us to live in fear, but to practice ________________.


10. Who cautioned us not to swear?


11. Who made an oath, and then greatly regretted it in the Bible?


12. What was the awful consequence of his oath?


13. Why did he not take back the oath?


14. Where do we find the Scriptures that tell us not to swear at all?


15. What is the first thing he must do, if he realizes he has sinned?


16. For the sin offering here, is it permissible for the offering to be a female?


17. How were they to confess their sins?


18. If they were to pray, what would be the first thing they would admit to God?


19. Where can you find more detailed information on this sin offering?


20. What is the only reason the person would be allowed to bring a lesser offering?


21. From verse 7, what could be substituted for the offering?


22. A sin offering is not a _______ ______ ____________.


23. Who must the sinner bring this offering to, in verse 8?


24. How will this fowl be offered?


25. What 2 things will the priest do with the blood?


26. What 2 things does the word atonement mean?


27. It shall be ________________ him




Leviticus Chapter 5 Continued

In the previous lesson, we have been studying the sin offering for being eyewitness to a sin and not reporting it, the sin of swearing, and the sin of being in contact with an unclean thing. We know that the offering varied according to the ability of the sinner to pay. We will now see that this lesson deals with the very poor who can hardly pay anything. These offerings were all blood offerings.


Leviticus 5:11 "But if he be not able to bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he that sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering; he shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put [any] frankincense thereon: for it [is] a sin offering."


Which is supposing a man to be in the poorest circumstances he can well be. And such is the grace and goodness of God, that he has provided for the atonement and forgiveness of the poorest, as well as of the rich.


"Then he that hath sinned shall bring for his offering the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering": Which is an omer (Exodus 16:36), and is as much as a man can eat in one day, as Aben Ezra remarks. "Ephah": About 6 gallons.


"He shall put no oil upon it, neither shall he put any frankincense thereon": To distinguish it from the common meat offering, which had both (Lev. 3:1). And to make it as easy, and as little chargeable to the poor as possible, both oil and frankincense being things of value. And some think that these were prohibited, to show that atonement and forgiveness. And even the salvation of men, are not owing to grace in them. Comparable to oil, or to their prayers, signified by frankincense, and so to any or all of their duties, but to Christ alone, and his atoning sacrifice. Or these were forbidden, because emblems of joy and gladness, and therefore not so proper at a confession of sin, and humiliation for it. Or rather to show how disagreeable and offensive sin was to the Lord, being contrary to grace, of which oil was an emblem, and far from being acceptable to him, which frankincense might signify. And therefore being prohibited, might denote how unacceptable, yea nauseous, sin is to him; which agrees with the reason given. "Put no oil ... frankincense": Contrast the grain offering (2:2).


"For it is a sin offering": And therefore must not be honored, as Jarchi. Or must have everything removed from it that is beautiful and amiable, as Ben Gersom, such as oil and frankincense.


Even though there is no blood evident in this offering of bread, it does not eliminate the fact that there is no remission of sin except by the shedding of blood. We discussed in a previous lesson, that this is a type and shadow of Jesus Christ (The Bread). The shadow has no blood, but the person it shadows does. Jesus is the Bread of life. His body was spoken of as bread. Jesus was our sin offering when He was crucified on the cross. This is unleavened bread, which is the only kind that can symbolize the sinless body of Christ. Jesus shed His blood for us.


Leviticus 5:12 "Then shall he bring it to the priest, and the priest shall take his handful of it, [even] a memorial thereof, and burn [it] on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the LORD: it [is] a sin offering."


The flour just as it was, not kneaded and made into a cake, as appears by what follows.


"And the priest shall take his handful of it": As much of the flour as he could hold in one hand.


"Even a memorial thereof": To bring to mind his sin, and the goodness of God in admitting of an offering for it, and forgiving it upon that.


"And burn it on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord": In the same manner as other burnt offerings were made.


"It is a sin offering": Or an expiatory sacrifice for sin.


Leviticus 5:13 "And the priest shall make an atonement for him as touching his sin that he hath sinned in one of these, and it shall be forgiven him: and [the remnant] shall be the priest's, as a meat offering."


By burning the handful of flour brought by him, as an emblem of the painful sufferings of Christ, whereby he made atonement for the sins of his people.


"As touching his sin that he hath sinned in one of these": For whatsoever sin he had committed in any of the above cases (Lev. 5:1).


"And it shall be forgiven him": Upon the foot of the atonement made (see notes on Lev. 5:10).


"And the remnant shall be the priest's as a meat offering": The whole tenth part of an ephah of fine flour was the priest's, excepting the handful he took and burnt. Just as in the case of a common meat offering (Lev. 2:3).


We see clearly here, that the minister of the church is supposed to live of the offerings brought to the church. Notice also that the priest (preacher), is to help the sinner that comes to the church, and that is without exception. When the sinner comes with a repentant heart, the preacher prays for him or her, and then praise God, his sins are forgiven. This memorial of this that is burned on the altar is very pleasing to God. It shows the sincerity of the repentance.


Verses 5:14 - 6:7 (see 7:1-10), for the priests' instructions. The trespass or guilt offering symbolized an atonement for sin unknowingly committed where restitution was possible. Like the sin offering (4:1 - 5:13), this one was compulsory. For sins against the Lord's property, restitution was made to the priest (5:14-19), while restitution was made to the person who suffered loss in other instances (6:1-7).


Leviticus 5:14 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


Out of the tabernacle of the congregation (Lev. 1:1), he continued to speak to him.


"Saying": As follows in the next verse.


I believe this sudden break here back to who is giving these directions, and to whom they are given, is to show us this is not something Moses just came up with but are God's wishes. These laws are many times called the law of Moses, when in fact, they are the law of God.


Leviticus 5:15 "If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the LORD; then he shall bring for his trespass unto the LORD a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering:"


In the sacrificial system in general, different animals were designated for different offerings according to their relative value. A bull was considered the costliest offering because the Hebrew people raised them for meat. Rams were needed for servicing ewes, so they too were a significant offering.


"Shekel of the sanctuary": This amounted to 20 gerahs (Exodus 30:13; Lev. 27:25; Num. 3:47), or 2 bekas (Exodus 38:26), which is the equivalent of four-tenths of one ounce. God fixed the value of a shekel.


The trespass offering and the sin offering, I do not believe to be the same. This trespass offering seemed to be a sin of omission of the duties toward God. In the sin offering, it seemed the offering was for a specific sin; and in the trespass offering, it seemed they were sacrificing for cleansing of their attitude toward God. This would be like a backslider praying to be forgiven for backsliding.


Silver means redemption, as we have said in so many of these lessons. This sacrifice should be of sufficient value, so as to compensate for the neglect of the person's duties to God. The trespass offering carried a penalty of 20% for failing to pay on time. It seemed that this could be owed to the temple, or to other believers. In this, the person had to make restitution for what he had neglected to do previously. When a person did not pay their tithes and offerings, it was as if they planned to rob God. If people today were fined 20% above their tithes and offerings that they had not brought to the temple, there would be enough ready cash to evangelize the whole world.


Leviticus 5:16 "And he shall make amends for the harm that he hath done in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him."


"Add a fifth part": The offender was required to make a 120 percent restitution, which was considerably lower than that prescribed elsewhere in the Mosaic law, e.g. (Exodus 22:7, 9). Perhaps this is accounted for by a voluntary confession in contrast to an adjudicated and forced conviction.


Notice that after the person makes amends for the wrong he or she has done, God forgives them. This should be good news for all the backsliders, God will take you back if you truly repent and try to make amends for the harm you have done.


Leviticus 5:17 "And if a soul sin, and commit any of these things which are forbidden to be done by the commandments of the LORD; though he wist [it] not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity."


Respecting holy things: though he wist it not. Or did not know that he had transgressed a negative command.


"Yet he is guilty, and shall bear the iniquity": Be chargeable with guilt, and is liable to punishment, and must make an atonement and satisfaction for it (see Luke 12:48).


We see in this that ignorance is no excuse. Here in the United States, that is probably more so than any other place on the globe. Bibles are readily available at all book stores. A person has no excuse for not knowing the will of God in their lives. Read your Bible and find the will of God for yourself. In some countries of the world, it is not possible to buy a Bible, even if you had the money to buy it. It is up to us, who are so blessed to see that these people have the privilege of owning a Bible. We must send Bibles to those places at all cost. We are our brother's keeper.


Leviticus 5:18 "And he shall bring a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering, unto the priest: and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he erred and wist [it] not, and it shall be forgiven him."


(See notes on Leviticus 5:15).


"With thy estimation for a trespass offering to the priest": Along with the offering was to be brought an estimate of whatsoever damage had been done through the breach of any of the commands of God. Where damage could take place, that so recompense be made as before directed. Or else the ram brought was to be valued, and examined whether it was worth two shekels of silver, as before explained (see notes on Lev. 5:15). But no fifth was required as in the former cases.


"And the priest shall make atonement for him concerning his ignorance wherein he erred, and wist it not, and it shall be forgiven him" (see notes on Leviticus 5:10). This is what the Jews call "Asham Talui", or guilt-offering.


As we have said so many times in these lessons, this ram typifies Christ. It must be without blemish, as He was perfect in every way. God does not want second best, He wants you to be sold out to Him and bring Him the best you have.


Leviticus 5:19 "It [is] a trespass offering: he hath certainly trespassed against the LORD."


An offering for a trespass committed.


"He hath certainly trespassed against the Lord": Though committed ignorantly, and therefore an offering must be brought. For no sin of any kind must be overlooked, passed by, or forgiven, without a sacrifice, or without atonement made by sacrifice. Or, "he shall offer a trespass offering to the Lord", or before the Lord, as Onkelos. Or before the Word of the Lord, as Jonathan. And Maimonides out of Siphri observes, that whereas it is said, a trespass or trespass offering to the Lord, it was not lawful for the priests to eat of it.


Trespass was translated from "asham" which means fault. It is our fault, if we do not do as God has instructed us to do. LORD in this is Jehovah, the self-existent One. Sins may be different in that they usually involve other people, but trespass is directly disobeying God. One more time, I believe trespass differs from sin in that trespass is overlooking the things of God that we are obligated to do. It is a trespass of omission rather than commission, which is sin. When we pray we ask God to forgive us of our trespasses and sins. You can easily see; they are not the same.


Leviticus Chapter 5 Continued Questions


1. What was the only reason the offering for sin could vary?


2. What was the offering that the very poor were to bring?


3. Why was this offering not to be covered with frankincense?


4. Who is the Bread that can be a sin offering?


5. The shadow has no ________ but the person it shadows has ______.


6. What type of offering was Jesus for us when He was crucified?


7. This handful that the priest burned was spoken of as what?


8. What should the minister of the church live on?


9. Who is the minister of the church to help?


10. What shows the sincerity of the repentance in verse 12?


11. Who was giving all of this information to Moses?


12. These laws are many times called the law of Moses, but whose laws are they really?


13. For a trespass against God or the sanctuary, what was the offering to be brought, if the person could afford it?


14. How did the trespass offering differ from the sin offering?


15. What does silver symbolize?


16. How could you relate the trespass offering to our day?


17. What kind of a penalty was to be paid on a neglected gift payment?


18. If everyone in our society today would pay up on their tithes and pay 20% interest, what would we be able to do?


19. In verse 16, what wonderful promise was given, if they did as God instructed them?


20. God will accept backsliders back, but what must they do first?


21. Is ignorance a legitimate excuse with God?


22. Why must the people in the United States send Bibles all over the world?


23. Who does the ram typify in this offering?


24. What does trespass in these verses mean?


25. LORD, in verse 19, is whom?


26. One more time, how does the trespass differ from the sin offering?





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Leviticus 6



Leviticus Chapter 6

Verses 1-7: While all sins are against God (compare Psalm 51:4), some are direct (5:14-19), and others are indirect, involving people (6:1-7), as here. These violations are not exhaustive, but representative sample used to establish and illustrate the principle.


Leviticus 6:1 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


Continuing his speech with him, for the same law of the trespass offering is still discoursed of, only with respect to different persons.


"Saying": As follows.


We notice from this brief statement, that the LORD (JEHOVAH), was the one giving the instructions. Even though Moses wrote the book of Leviticus, he did not speak of himself as me in the above verse, because he did not want any doubt to arise, who this message was given to.


Leviticus 6:2 "If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and lie unto his neighbor in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbor;"


"And commit a trespass against the Lord": It will be seen that the trespass against God is, strictly speaking, a violation of the rights of a neighbor's property. As fraud and plunder are most subversive of social life, a crime of this sort is described as an insult to God, who is the founder and sovereign ruler of his people.


"In that which was delivered him to keep": To deposit valuable property with a neighbor was, and still is, a common practice in the East where no responsible establishments exist for the reception of private treasure. Hence, when a man went on a journey, he concealed his precious things underground. This was connected with the danger of forgetting the spot where they were hidden, when search and digging had to be resorted to. This not only accounts for the fact that treasure is called in Hebrew by a name which denotes hidden, or things which men are in the habit of hiding underground, but explains such allusions as "hidden riches of secret places" (Isa. 45:3). "And searchest for her as for hid treasure" (Prov. 2:4). "Dig for it more than for hid treasure" (Job 3:21). To avoid this danger, men entrusted their treasure to the custody of a neighbor. It is to this practice which the text before us refers. And it is from this practice that the apostle took the expression when he declares, "I am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day" (2 Tim. 1:12; see also Lev. 6:14, 1 Tim. 6:20).


"Or in fellowship": Literally, or in something that is placed in the hand. That is, put in his hand, a deposit. It is similar in nature to the trust mentioned in the preceding clause, for which reason it is not repeated in the general recapitulation of the offences in (Lev. 6:4-5).


"Or in a thing taken away in violence": Having specified two cases of embezzlement in connection with things voluntarily handed over to the defrauder. Two other frauds are adduced, in which the offender possessed himself of his neighbor's property by violence and extortion.


Leviticus 6:3 "Or have found that which was lost, and lieth concerning it, and sweareth falsely; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein:"


Who having found anything lost, at once concludes it his own, and converts it to his own use, never inquiring after the proprietor of it, or taking any method to get knowledge of him, and restore it to him. But so far from that, being suspected of finding it, and charged with it denies it. Maimonides gives a reason why a lost thing should be restored, not only because so to do is a virtue in itself praiseworthy, but because it has a reciprocal utility. For if you do not restore another's lost things, neither will your own be restored to you.


"And sweareth falsely": Which is to be understood, not of the last case only, but of all the rest, or of anyone of them, as it follows.


"In any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein": By unfaithfulness in a trust, cheating, defrauding, lying, and false swearing.


Leviticus 6:4 "Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the lost thing which he found,"


These offences have to do with moral sins against one's neighbor, or friend. These sins would not be ceremonial sins against God. Jesus reminded us of the seriousness of these trespasses in the following verses.


Matthew 5:23-24 "Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee;" "Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift."


The thing that stands out clearly in these verses, is the need to make the offense right with the person you offended, before you come to offer in the tabernacle. Soul means a breathing creature. This is used so that there would be no question whether all would be subject. A female can trespass against her neighbor the same as a male. You can read a more detailed explanation (in Exodus chapter 22:7-13), on this subject. When teaching this lesson, turn there and read the explanation. These verses go into detail about the things that you are taking care of for someone else. We read a more detailed explanation of things we find, and what we are to do with them in the next 3 verses.


Deuteronomy 22:1-3 "Thou shalt not see thy brother's ox or his sheep go astray, and hide thyself from them: thou shalt in any case bring them again unto thy brother." "And if thy brother [be] not nigh unto thee, or if thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it unto thine own house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother seek after it, and thou shalt restore it to him again." "In like manner shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his raiment; and with all lost thing of thy brother's, which he hath lost, and thou hast found, shalt thou do likewise: thou mayest not hide thyself."


We must see in this that anything thy brother has lost should be returned to him, even if it is a billfold full of money. Jesus taught that we are not to swear at all, but to swear a lie would be doubly serious. In all of this, we are to make amends to the person we offended, before God will accept the trespass offering. God will not overlook this trespass. We must go to the person offended and make it right, and then go to the tabernacle and offer our offering.


Leviticus 6:5 "Or all that about which he hath sworn falsely; he shall even restore it in the principal, and shall add the fifth part more thereto, [and] give it unto him to whom it appertaineth, in the day of his trespass offering."


In all of the above cases, in which he had committed a trespass and denied it, and to the denial adds a false oath, and yet after all acknowledges it.


"He shall even restore it in the principal": Whatsoever he has embezzled, or cheated another of, or detained from the right owner, the whole of that was to be restored.


"And shall add the fifth part more thereto": To the principal (see Lev. 5:16). But Maimonides says, this was an instruction to add a fifth to a fifth.


"And give it unto him to whom appertaineth": As, to his neighbor, who had deposited anything in his hands. Or his partner, he had any ways wronged; or whomsoever he had defrauded in any respect; or the proprietor of lost goods.


"In the day of his trespass offering": When he brings that, but restoration must first be made. The Targum of Jonathan renders it; in the day he repents of his sin. and so Aben Ezra interprets it, "in the day he returns from his trespass;" when he owns and confesses it, is sorry for it, and determines to do so no more. Maimonides observes, that one that takes away anything by violence (which is one of the cases supposed), is not fined so much as a thief. He only restores the principal. For the fifth part is for his false oath. The reasons of which are, because robbery is not so frequently, and is more easily committed, and is more open, and against which persons may guard and make resistance, and the robber is more known than a thief who steals secretly (see Exodus 22:1).


You can see here, that not only must the person repay, but must add 20% more for the trouble they caused their neighbor. After all this is done, then they can go to the tabernacle and make a trespass offering, to make this right with God.


Leviticus 6:6 "And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering, unto the priest:"


That is, to the tabernacle of the Lord, to the altar of the Lord in it, and to his priest ministering therein, as it follows.


"A ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering unto the priest": The same offering that was ordered for a trespass through ignorance (Lev. 5:16). Typical of the sacrifice of Christ offered up both for sins of ignorance and willful transgressions. For his blood cleanses from all sin (see note on Lev. 5:16). The phrase "with thy estimation", used there also (Lev. 5:16), is here interpreted by Ben Gersom of two shekels, the value the ram was to be of, brought for the trespass offering. The priest served as an appraiser to give appropriate value to the goods in question.


Leviticus 6:7 "And the priest shall make an atonement for him before the LORD: and it shall be forgiven him for any thing of all that he hath done in trespassing therein."


By offering the ram he brought, by which a typical, but not real atonement was made. For the blood of bulls and goats, of sheep and rams, could not take away sin; but as they were types of Christ, and led to him, the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world.


"And it shall be forgiven him, for anything of all that he hath done, in trespassing therein": Any and every one of the above sins, with all the aggravations of them, were forgiven, upon the atonement made. Though they were so enormous; and, indeed, all manner of sin is forgiven for Christ's sake, except the sin against the Holy Ghost.


You can easily see how expensive this trespass can be. Not only would the person have to give 20% extra to the one he offended, but would be required to bring an offering to the tabernacle, also. It is much better and in fact, less expensive to just go ahead and do the right thing at first and not have to do all of this. The best promise in all of this is, it shall be forgiven him. This reminds me of people who cheat on their income tax. When you are caught, you have to pay a penalty above the tax owed. Why not just do right at first and save all the hassle? We will jump away from this train of thought now and get into the law of the offerings.


Verses 6:8 - 7:38: These were laws of sacrifice for the priesthood. (Leviticus 1:1 - 6:7), has dealt with 5 major offerings from the worshiper's perspective. Here instructions for the priest are given, with special attention to the priests' portion of the sacrifice.


Leviticus 6:8 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


Here begins a new subject, and if our Bibles were rightly divided, it ought to begin a new chapter. As in Junius and Tremellius, who join the first seven verses of this chapter to the former. Indeed, according to the Jewish division, the twenty-fifth section of the law begins here.


It seems that every time we begin a new thing, Moses reminds us that God gave him these rules for the people. These laws are divine in nature. Every one of them served a purpose. At the time these laws were given, Israel did not have a king. God was their King.


Leviticus 6:9 "Command Aaron and his sons, saying, This [is] the law of the burnt offering: It [is] the burnt offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning in it."


"Upon the altar all night": This resulted in the complete incineration of the sacrifice, picturing it as totally given to the Lord, with the smoke arising as a sweet aroma to Him (1:7, 13, 17).


The very first thing that we must see in this, is the fact that this was not just a suggestion of what they might do, but was a commandment of God. On the burnt offering, they were not to let the fire go out at all, but were to keep it burning until the offering was completely burned up. Aaron and his sons were to wear their linen garments while this offering was being made. This was a very holy offering, and they were to be attired properly while it burned. If you need to read again about the lamb being offered every evening, it can be found (in Exodus 29:38 on). Remember, the burnt offering was to be totally burned up, except for the hide which was given to the priest. Remember also, the burnt offering showed that the individual had turned themselves over completely to God. My favorite saying that says the same thing is: Make Jesus Christ your Lord and not just your Savior. Total commitment to God is all He will settle for. He does not want 50% of you, He wants all of you.


Leviticus 6:10 "And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar."


A garment that was just the measure of his body, and exactly fitted it. It was a sort of a shirt, which he wore next his body, and reached down to his feet. And in this he always officiated, and was an emblem of the purity and holiness of Christ our high priest. Who was without sin, and so a fit person to take away the sin of others, by offering up himself without spot to God.


"And his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh": To cover his nakedness; that indecency might be prevented, and that he might not be exposed to ridicule. And though these two garments are only mentioned, yet the wise men say the word "put on", includes the bonnet and the girdle. For the removing of the ashes from the altar, which is the thing he was to be thus clothed to do, was done in the four garments, though the Scripture mentions but two.


"And take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed, with the burnt offering on the altar": This was the first thing the priests did in a morning, and which in later times they cast lots for, and the first lot was for this service, and which was performed very early.


"And he shall put them beside the altar": At the corner of the altar, as Aben Ezra, on the east side of it. So says Jarchi, the priest takes a full censer of the innermost consumptions (that is, of the innermost parts of the sacrifice reduced to ashes), and puts them in the east of the rise of the altar.


Notice the linen garment. To handle the things of God, the priest should be free from sin. The linen garment indicates freedom from sin. This linen garment was not worn outside the tabernacle. The linen garment was not to be contaminated with the world. We have discussed it before, but the plain linen garment was worn when the priest was representing the people to God. The fancy garment with the jewels on the breastplate was worn when the high priest was representing God to the people. No flesh at all was to be showing on the priest, and that is why the linen breeches were worn.


Leviticus 6:11 "And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place."


Those before mentioned, he is said to put on.


"And put on other garments": Not common garments or lay-habits, but what the priests wore when they were not on duty.


"And carry forth the ashes": When these, gathered on a heap, had become large, as Jarchi says, and there was no room for the pile of wood, they carried them out from there. And this, he observes, was not obligatory every day. but the taking of them up, as in the preceding verse (Lev. 6:10), they were bound to every day. And these they carried:


"Without the camp, unto a clean place": For though they were ashes, yet being ashes of holy things were not to be laid in an unclean place. Or where unclean things were. As the burnt offering was a type of Christ in his sufferings and death, enduring the fire of divine wrath in the room and stead of his people. So the carrying forth the ashes of the burnt offering, and laying them in a clean place, may denote the burial of the body of Christ without the city of Jerusalem. Wrapped in a clean linen cloth and laid in a new tomb, wherein no man had been laid (Matt. 27:59).


The priest is to never wear the ceremonial clothes outside the tabernacle. He would change his clothes to street clothes before he left the tabernacle. The ashes would be carried without the camp. This burnt offering had been totally consumed, and the remains carried out of the camp. Jesus paid it all outside the city wall for us.


Leviticus 6:12 "And the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it; it shall not be put out: and the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt offering in order upon it; and he shall burn thereon the fat of the peace offerings."


There were three fires, or piles of wood for fire continually. The first was a large one, on which the daily sacrifice was burnt. The second less, and called the pile of the incense, because they took from it fire in a censer to burn the morning and evening incense. And the third was only for preserving the fire that it might not go out.


"And the priest shall burn wood in it every morning": Until the fourth hour of the day, according to the Targum of Jonathan. That is, unto ten o'clock in the morning.


"And lay the burnt offering in order upon it": Both morning and evening, and as often as any sacrifices of that kind were offered up.


"And he shall burn thereon the fat of the peace offerings": That which was upon the inwards and covered them, and upon the kidneys, and flanks, and caul of the liver (see Lev. 3:3-4).


This altar was to have wood on it burning continuously, because there would be an offering on the wood every morning and every night. Each time before the offering was to be made, the priest laid fresh wood sufficient to burn the entire animal.


Leviticus 6:13 "The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out."


"Ever be burning": The perpetual flame indicated a continuous readiness on the part of God to receive confession and restitution through the sacrifice.


This fire was to burn continuously. It was never to go out. God wants us to worship Him forever after, when we once commit our lives to Him. We must not let our fire go out either. The walk with God must be a daily walk. In fact, it must be a never ending walk. The best way to stay in right standing with God, is to go to Him in prayer at least 2 times a day. Christianity is a walk through life with Jesus.


Leviticus Chapter 6 Questions


1. Who spoke unto Moses to give these instructions?


2. Why did Moses not say me when referring to himself?


3. In chapter 6:2, what is the sinner called?


4. Name several ways a person could sin in lying to a neighbor.


5. What kind of swearing is spoken of in verse 3?


6. What was required of the sinner to do, if he was guilty of a trespass against his neighbor?


7. Are the sins spoken of here moral sins or ceremonial sins?


8. Explain the difference in a moral sin and a ceremonial sin.


9. In Matthew 5:24, what does Jesus tell us to do before we bring an offering to God in the temple?


10. What is the clear lesson taught in this?


11. What is the definition of soul in these verses?


12. Why was the word soul used instead of man?


13. Where in Exodus, can we find more on taking care of someone else's property?


14. Where do we find a more detailed explanation about things we find, and what we are to do with them, than here in Leviticus?


15. What should we do, if we find a billfold full of money?


16. To swear a _____ would be doubly serious.


17. What should we do first, before we go to God, if we have done wrong against our neighbor?


18. What % of interest should be paid when you cheat your neighbor?


19. What should be brought to the temple for a trespass offering?


20. Who should he present the offering to?


21. What must be the condition of the ram?


22. What is the best promise made to the offender in all of this?


23. What does Moses remind us of every time we change to a different subject?


24. These laws are _________ in nature.


25. Who was Israel's King?


26. What one word, in Leviticus 6:9, lets us know this was not an option with the priests and high priest?


27. When were the all linen garments worn by the priest?


28. When did the priest wear the garment with the breastplate of stones on it?


29. What was the only part of the burnt offering which was not burned up?


30. When the ashes were taken out of the camp, what did the priest wear?


31. How often did the priest put wood on the altar?


32. Our walk with God must be a _______ walk.




Leviticus Chapter 6 Continued

Verses 14-18: The priests were to display reverence in eating what was left over of the "meat offering", doing so in a "holy place" (the tabernacle "court") with "unleavened bread" (1 Cor. 9:13).


Leviticus 6:14 "And this [is] the law of the meat offering: the sons of Aaron shall offer it before the LORD, before the altar."


Or the rules to be observed concerning that, for which, though directions are given (Lev. 2:1). Yet is here repeated with some additions to it.


"The sons of Aaron shall offer it before the Lord": Being brought unto them by the children of Israel.


"Before the altar": Or at the face of it, for what was properly offered was burnt upon it, as in the following verse (Lev. 6:15). For it should be rather rendered "in", or "on the altar"; the face of it is the top of it, on which every sacrifice was offered, and not before it.


A great portion of the grain offered in the meat offering is consumed by Aaron and his sons who are priests. Just a small portion of the grain is offered to be burned. One very important thing about this grain offered, is that it must not have leaven mixed with it. We discussed in a previous lesson how this actually foreshadowed the body of Christ and must be kept without sin (leaven). Jesus Christ, the Bread of life, was holy. Those who eat this bread take on the righteousness of Christ. They take on His righteousness.


Leviticus 6:15 "And he shall take of it his handful, of the flour of the meat offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which [is] upon the meat offering, and shall burn [it] upon the altar [for] a sweet savor, [even] the memorial of it, unto the LORD."


"Handful" (see note on 2:2).


The memorial here, is a remembrance of what God has done for them. We will see in the following Scripture what Jesus had to say about this bread.


Luke 22:19 "And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake [it], and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me."


In the instance of this flour, oil, and frankincense, we would not be able to get a clear picture by just looking at these 3 elements without looking at the One they foreshadow. Jesus' life on this earth was a sweet savor to the Father. As we said in a previous lesson, somehow the crucifixion of Jesus on the cross glorified the Father. We do not now understand all of this, but all of this is a beautiful shadow of what Jesus did for you and me. Oil, as we have said so many times, indicates the Holy Spirit. The frankincense always accompanied the meat offering into the tabernacle. The frankincense at Jesus' birth, recognized Him as the meat sacrifice. Remember, the gold recognized Him as God, the frankincense recognized Him as the meat sacrifice, and myrrh recognized Him as the groom of the bride of Christ. Read more on this in the gospels.


Verses 16-18: Unlike the burnt offering, the meat offering provided food for the priests and their male children, i.e., future priests.


Leviticus 6:16 "And the remainder thereof shall Aaron and his sons eat: with unleavened bread shall it be eaten in the holy place; in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation they shall eat it."


"In the holy place": This was to be eaten only in the courtyard of the tabernacle.


This also is a repetition of a former lesson, but God thought it important enough to mention twice, so we must too. This bread that they are to eat symbolizes the Word (Bible). Remember, Aaron in this particular situation symbolizes the preacher, and the sons symbolize the believers in Christ. This then is telling us to read our Bible. He emphasizes over and over again, that we are to keep leaven (sin), out of our life. Notice also, that the Word is to be consumed in the tabernacle (church). So many churches have forgotten why we come to church. Church should be a place where the Word of God is consumed, not a playground for all sorts of worldliness.


Leviticus 6:17 "It shall not be baked with leaven. I have given it [unto them for] their portion of my offerings made by fire; it [is] most holy, as [is] the sin offering, and as the trespass offering."


Which, as it was a type of Christ, may denote his sincerity both in doctrine, life, and conversation. And as it may respect the offeror, may signify his uprightness and integrity, and his being devoid of hypocrisy and insincerity.


"I have given it unto thee for their portion of my offerings made by fire": This was part of the provision made for the maintenance of the priests, as it was but just that they that ministered at the altar should live of it. And the rather, as the priests and Levites had no portion and inheritance in the land of Israel. And therefore, must be supported in another way, which the Lord took care of.


"It is most holy, as the sin offering, and as the trespass offering": As they, so this being devoted to sacred uses, what were not consumed upon the altar belonged to the priests, and were their perquisites, nor might they be appropriated to the use of any other.


We see from this, that this offering had a portion going to the priest. All of these offerings are most holy as they represent the sacrifice Jesus made for us. Not only the offering would be holy, but all who put this in their body would be made holy by the Bread.


Leviticus 6:18 "All the males among the children of Aaron shall eat of it. [It shall be] a statute for ever in your generations concerning the offerings of the LORD made by fire: every one that toucheth them shall be holy."


And they only, for none but they might eat in the Holy Place, and therefore these holy things that were to be eaten there, were only eaten by them. What might be eaten by the priests in their own houses, their wives and daughters ate of, but in the Holy Place only their males, and a male was one that was thirteen years of age.


John 6:27 "It shall be a statute for ever in your generations, concerning the offerings of the Lord made by fire. "A statute to last till the Messiah should come, the true meat or bread offering; and the bread he gave was his flesh. And he that eats of it shall not die, but live for ever.


"Everyone that toucheth them shall be holy": Signifying, that no one ought to touch them but a holy person, one devoted to holy services, the priests and their sons; or "whatsoever" toucheth them. The dishes they eat those offerings out of, or the knives they cut them with, were not to be used for anything else.


This seems to be a difficult statement, but Aaron and his sons (the priests), were in the temple. This bread was not to be taken out of the temple. This bread was actually for the high priest and for his sons the priests. Not only does Aaron represent the minister in the church, but in the greater sense, he represents Christ. The priests, in the same sense, would represent all Christians. The symbolism we must see in this, is that the Bible (Word), Bread was furnished by Christ, and was for the minister of the church (who Aaron represents). And the believers in Christ (who Aaron's sons represent). Worldly people can read the Bible every day and not be able to understand. The Bible is written for believers. The Holy Spirit helps us understand.



Verses 19-23: The priests were worshipers too and were not exempt from sacrifice. Their own "daily meat offering" was to be "wholly burnt", unlike the meat offering of the people.


Aaron, as High-Priest, was to make a daily meat offering at morning and night on behalf of his priestly family.


Leviticus 6:19 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


The new law, which is here introduced with this special formula (see Lev. 6:8), gives directions about the meat offering which the high priest is to bring on his consecration to the pontifical office (Lev. 6:19-23). It naturally follows the sacrificial instructions given for the priests in the preceding section.


Moses put this in again, to leave no doubt where these instructions came from.


Leviticus 6:20 "This [is] the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer unto the LORD in the day when he is anointed; the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meat offering perpetual, half of it in the morning, and half thereof at night."


That is, of such of them as succeeded him in the high priesthood, as appears from (Lev. 6:22). So Aben Ezra, of him, or of one of his sons in his room. Though some think the common priests offered the following oblation at the time of their initiation into their office, though they were not anointed as the high priest was, nor obliged as he to continue the offering daily.


"Which they shall offer unto the Lord in the day when he is anointed": When he, or any of his sons in his stead, were anointed, for as yet he himself was not (see Lev. 8:2). Some, as Aben Ezra observes, think that "in", is instead of "from", and that the sense is, that Aaron, or his successor, and every of them, were to offer the following offering perpetually from the time of their being anointed. And put into the office of the high priest, and which certainly was the case, as appears by what follows:


"The tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meat offering perpetual": Which was an omer, and as much as a man could eat in one day. And this the high priest offered every day, as long as he lived, or was in his office. And that at his own expense, as Josephus says, not altogether, but in the following manner.


"Half of it in the morning, and half of it at night": So that this constantly returned as the morning and evening sacrifices did, and followed them. Jarchi says of this, that it was the common meat offering at the consecration of a priest, but the high priest offered it every day. And it appears from the Misnic writers that this meat offering consisted of twelve cakes, the same number as those of the showbread. The same phrase, a "perpetual statute", being used of one as the other. And six of these were offered in the morning, and six at evening. And this as the daily sacrifice had the same mystical meaning, and respected the continual efficacy of the sacrifice of Christ.


The part that was to be burned for an offering to God was one tenth, or a tithe. Half of it would be burned at the morning sacrifice and half at the evening sacrifice. Aaron and his sons were the only ones anointed to help with the things of God. We need to touch on the sons of Aaron a little more here. All believers in Christ are sons of the Father.


1 John 3:1-2 "Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not." "Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is."


The "we" above include all believers' male and female, just as all believers in Christ are the bride of Christ (male and female). The followers of God in the Old Testament were only servants of God. Under the New covenant with Jesus, we are God's sons. I will quote just 2 more Scriptures which make our Sonship perfectly clear. God the Father has a name that only His children can call Him, the world dare not call Him by this name. The name Abba is reserved for just His children to call Him.


Romans 8:15 "For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father."


Galatians 4:6 "And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father."


Leviticus 6:21 "In a pan it shall be made with oil; [and when it is] baked, thou shalt bring it in: [and] the baked pieces of the meat offering shalt thou offer [for] a sweet savor unto the LORD."


With oil olive, as the Targum of Jonathan. The pan in which it was made was a vessel that had no covering, nor hollow in the middle, nor any lip or edge. But was a plane, and extended, and the dough made on it was hard and stiff, that it might not run off. In the temple was a chamber of those that made the cakes, where, as Bartenora observes, was prepared the meat offering. Which the high priest offered, one half in the morning, and the other half in the evening.


"And when it is baked, thou shalt bring it in": Not thoroughly baked, but very little, as says Josephus. Hastily, so that it swells, and rises up in bubbles. Jarchi says, the flour was first mixed in hot water, and after that it was baked in an oven, and then fried in a pan.


"And the baked pieces of the meat offering shalt thou offer for a sweet savor unto the Lord": Or the meat offering cut in pieces shalt thou offer, as both the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem. The twelve cakes were broken each into two, and twelve halves were offered in the morning, and twelve at evening. The manner in which it was done was, the priest divided every cake into two by measure, so that he might offer half in the morning, and half in the evening. And he took the halves and doubled every one of them into two, and broke them, until he found every broken piece doubled into two. And he offered the halves with half the handful of frankincense in the morning, and in like manner in the evening. This may have respect to the body of Christ being broken for us, whereby he became fit food for faith, and an offering of a sweet smelling savor to God.


We can easily see from this that this offering to God was of the bread baked in the oven.


Verses 22-23: "The priest ... anointed in his stead": The High-Priests who succeed Aaron are in view here.


"Wholly burnt": The priests' offering was to be given completely, with nothing left over.


Leviticus 6:22 "And the priest of his sons that is anointed in his stead shall offer it: [it is] a statute for ever unto the LORD; it shall be wholly burnt."


The successor of the high priest.


"It is a statute for ever unto the Lord": Which he by an everlasting statute appointed to be offered to him by every high priest, until the Messiah should come.


"It shall be wholly burnt": Of a common meat offering only a handful was burnt, and the rest was the priest's (see Lev. 6:15).


We must see in all of this that God has always, and will always have a provision for mankind where they can come to God. God's provision never stops. Jesus fulfilled every one of these offerings and sacrifices for the believers, and opened the way to the Father for us, when He sacrificed His body on the cross. Aaron's son here, is a specific son who has been anointed to take Aaron's place, as high priest after Aaron.


Leviticus 6:23 "For every meat offering for the priest shall be wholly burnt: it shall not be eaten."


Wherefore the priest that offered this for the high priest got nothing by it: he served him free gratis.


"It shall not be eaten": Neither by himself, nor any other priest. The priests by eating the offerings of the people bore their iniquities, and made atonement for them (Lev. 10:17). But the priests might not eat their own sacrifices, to show that they could not bear their own sins, and make atonement for them. And this proves the insufficiency of the legal sacrifices, and the need there was for one to arise of another order to take away sin. And it is thought by some to be typical of the active obedience of Christ. Every day yielded to the law and will of God, and is perfect, as the word here signifies, and to be distinguished from "a burnt offering".


This is when the priest is offering for himself. It would not be right for the priest to share in the offering, if it is one he has made for himself. In all of this, it seems to be pointing to the fact that the grace of God is so much better than the keeping of the law. It screams out that God has always wanted to fellowship with man. Through Jesus Christ our Lord, we can come boldly to the throne of God. Jesus gave us power of attorney to use His name. In fact, He made us joint heirs with Himself.


Romans 8:17 "And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with [him], that we may be also glorified together."


Leviticus Chapter 6 Continued Questions


1. What type of offering is the grain that is offered in verse 14?


2. Who consumes a great deal of the offering of grain?


3. Why must this grain not have any leaven mixed with it?


4. Those who eat of this Bread take on what?


5. What is the memorial mentioned in verse 15?


6. What did Jesus say the Bread was in Luke chapter 22 verse 19?


7. What must we be able to see in these lessons on Leviticus for them to be useful for us to study?


8. Jesus' crucifixion _____________ the Father.


9. What is the oil in all of these sacrifices symbolic of?


10. When the wise men brought frankincense to Jesus at His birth, what did it symbolize?


11. What did the Gold they brought Jesus recognize Him as?


12. Where were Aaron and his sons to eat the bread?


13. What does the eating of this Bread teach the Christians?


14. A portion of this bread went to whom?


15. All who partook of this offering would be ________.


16. Why was it mentioned that this was to be eaten by the males of Aaron's family?


17. Who are the two that Aaron represents in all of this?


18. Aaron's sons represent whom?


19. Give 2 other names we call the Bible?


20. Who is the Bible written for?


21. What percentage of the bread was offered to God on the fire?


22. When was it offered?


23. What are all believers in Christ called?


24. Who are the bride of Christ?


25. What special name for the Father is for only believers to call Him?


26. How does the Christian's sonship differ from Christ's Sonship?


27. How long does God's provision for His followers last?


28. What does the author think screams out in these lessons?


29. What does Romans 8:17 tell us that we are with Jesus, if we are believers?




Leviticus Chapter 6 Second Continued

These last few verses (in chapter 6), have to do with the sin offering. Let us just look into this, even before we start the verses. We know that Jesus Christ was the sin offering for all believers. We also know that He took our sin upon His body, that we might receive His righteousness. The sin offering was for sins that had been committed against God Himself. A sin of this nature would be much more serious than some of the lesser offenses we have been studying. I have said it before, but it is very important for us as Christians to see Jesus in this sin offering.


It is a very serious thing to decide to believe in Jesus and decide to live and work for Him the rest of your life. Before we decide to do such a thing, we must count the cost. Lot's wife lost her life, after she had been saved from the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, by looking back. I will show you just one Scripture here that tells us the seriousness of looking back, after we have begun with God.


Luke 9:62 "And Jesus said unto him, No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God."


We are warned in another Scripture to count the cost before we begin.


Luke 14:27- "And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after me, cannot be my disciple." "For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have [sufficient] to finish [it]?"


Luke 14:33 "So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple."


Whatever job God has called you to do, and you have accepted the call, you must continue to do until God says stop.


We have been speaking of the high priest and his sons, the priests, in these lessons. God has made those He called (the Christians), to be priests. I will give you 2 examples of Scriptures where the believers in Christ are called priests.


Revelation 1:6 "And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him [be] glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen."


Revelation 5:10 "And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth."


Notice that kings and priests are not capitalized here. In the next Scripture, you will see that Jesus becomes the King, and we are His subordinate kings.


Revelation 17:14 "These shall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with him [are] called, and chosen, and faithful."


We are priests in the sight of God, if we are believers. We notice in all of this, that this offering must be eaten in the sanctuary. This means, to me, that the things of God are not to be mixed with the things of the world. We have our life, our very being, hidden in Him. He is our life.


Galatians 2:20 "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me."


The things dedicated to God are holy and must not be contaminated by things of the world. Worldliness has no place in the church. We are to be holy for God is holy.


Verses 24-30: "All the males among the priests shall eat thereof" suggests that in some instances, members of the priests' families would eat the sacrifices too; although in this case, the priest alone was commanded to eat his portion.


"The sin offering" (see notes on 4:1 - 5:13).


Leviticus 6:24 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


As is indicated by the special formula, this introduces a new law, or rather a more expanded law than the one contained (in Leviticus 4:1-5), giving more precise directions to the priests about the sin offering of the laity (Lev. 6:24-30).


A new thought begins here, and Moses wants it clearly understood that this message is from God. LORD here of course, is Jehovah.


Leviticus 6:25 "Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, saying, This [is] the law of the sin offering: In the place where the burnt offering is killed shall the sin offering be killed before the LORD: it [is] most holy."


Or the rules to be observed concerning that, besides what had been already delivered in (Lev. 4:1).


"In the place where the burnt offering is killed shall the sin offering be killed before the Lord": And that was on the north side of the altar (see Lev. 1:11; see notes on 1:3-17). And so Aben Ezra and Ben Gersom observe, that the place of slaying every sin offering was the north. And some have observed that Mount Calvary, where our Lord was crucified, lay pretty much to the north of Jerusalem (see Psalm 48:2).


"It is most holy": Sacred to the Lord, offered up to him, and accepted by him, and typical of the most pure and holy sacrifice of Christ. Who was made sin, and an offering for sin, in the place of his people. "Most holy" (see note on 2:3).


The location seems to be important here. This animal will be killed just inside the door of the tabernacle. Jesus is the door that we enter to come to fellowship with God. Jesus also, is this offering. The altar spoken of here is the bronze altar of judgment. We have all been judged guilty of sin and worthy of death before we come to Jesus Christ our Savior. Remember again, that the person bringing the animal places their hand upon the animal's head to transfer the guilt of sin on the animal. The animal's blood is then shed to pay the penalty for sin. Blood is the only payment acceptable unto God. This animal becomes the substitute for this person who has sinned, just as Jesus became our substitute. The sin was paid in full by the shed blood of Jesus Christ. Our offering (Jesus Christ), was most holy. He took our sin that we might become holy in the sight of God.


Leviticus 6:26 "The priest that offereth it for sin shall eat it: in the holy place shall it be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation."


"Priest ... eat": The priest putting the offering on the brazen altar could use it for food, if the sacrifice was for a ruler (4:22-26), or the people (4:27-35).


We have dealt with this before, but I would like to show you one Scripture here.


John 6:53 "Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you."


Verses 27-28: Instructions on the cleanness of the priest's garments as they relate to blood.


Leviticus 6:27 "Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be holy: and when there is sprinkled of the blood thereof upon any garment, thou shalt wash that whereon it was sprinkled in the holy place."


None but holy persons, such as were devoted to holy services, even the priests and their sons, might touch and eat of the flesh of the sin offering. All that did so were sacred persons. And even what were used in eating it, dishes and knives, were to be put to no other use, not to any common service, or for anything but holy things. Which was done to keep up a veneration for the sacrifices. And especially for the great sacrifice they typified, the sacrifice of Christ, whose flesh is meat indeed. And whoever eats of that by faith dwells in Christ, and Christ dwells in him (John 6:55).


"And when there is sprinkled of the blood thereof upon any garment; the garment of the priest that slays and offers it.


"Thou shalt wash that whereon it was sprinkled in the holy place": It was not to be carried out of the tabernacle, and washed elsewhere, but in the sanctuary. Either at the laver, where the priests washed their hands and feet, or in some room in the court for that purpose. This was done to preserve an esteem and value for the blood of the sacrifice, as typical of the precious blood of Christ.


It appears that sometimes the priest, in the preparation of the offering, would accidently drop some blood on the garment. He was to wash the garment inside the holy place. The garment was holy, because it had come into contact with the offering. Notice also, that the priests and the high priest were holy. They were not to get involved with worldly things. They were to be separated unto God.


2 Corinthians 6:17 "Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean [thing]; and I will receive you,"


Christians, you cannot have one foot in the world and the other foot in heaven. You must choose between the world and God.


Leviticus 6:28 "But the earthen vessel wherein it is sodden shall be broken: and if it be sodden in a brasen pot, it shall be both scoured, and rinsed in water."


That being porous, the liquor in which the sin offering was boiled might soak into it, and the smell of it be retained, and therefore, as such vessels were not very costly, they were ordered to be broken. But where the broken pieces were carried and laid, the Jewish writers are at a loss about. For, those vessels which had served for holy uses, should be laid in an open public place and exposed, they thought was indecent. And as there might be in a course of time great quantities broken, so it would look very disagreeable and unseemly to have them lie in heaps in the sanctuary. They therefore have framed a miracle, and conceit that they were swallowed up in the ground where they were laid.


"And if it be sodden in a brazen it shall be both scoured and rinsed in water": Brass, being more valuable, must not be destroyed. And besides the liquor could not soak into that, and whatever scent it retained was easily and soon removed by scouring and rinsing. The former was with hot water, and the latter with cold, as Ben Gersom affirms.


This is a beautiful example of how things, or people dedicated to God, must not participate in worldly things. In an earthen vessel, it would be impossible to keep the things out of the pores of the vessel, so God said break them to keep them from being contaminated. In the case of the bronze pot, it could be scraped and cleaned so that it would not mix things used in it.


Leviticus 6:29 "All the males among the priests shall eat thereof: it [is] most holy."


As of the meat offerings (Lev. 6:18), and this shows that not the single priest that offered only ate of it (Lev. 6:26). But his male children, and not those only, but those of other priests then upon duty, or in the court.


"It is most holy (see notes on Lev. 6:25).


We dealt with this before, but so no one can say they did not know, we will go through it again. The priests were symbolic of all believers in Christ (both male and female). All believers in Christ are spoken of as sons of God, just as all believers both male and female are the bride of Christ. You might say, well how can this be? With God there is no male and female. The only time we will have a gender is for our stay on this earth in the flesh. We are male and female on the earth to procreate life with God. We are spirit beings with a different kind of body than we had here on the earth. First I will give the Scripture that says with God there is no male or female.


Galatians 3:28 "There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus."


Now let me give you the Scriptures that say we will have a different kind of body in heaven.


1 Corinthians 15:42-45 "So also [is] the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption:" "It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised in power:" "It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body." "And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam [was made] a quickening spirit."


Leviticus 6:30 "And no sin offering, whereof [any] of the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the congregation to reconcile [withal] in the holy [place], shall be eaten: it shall be burnt in the fire."


"No sin offering ... eaten": Those sacrifices made on behalf of a priest (4:3-12), or the congregation (4:13-21), could be eaten.


We dealt with this fully, when we looked at the sin offering. We remember that for this particular offering, the offering was burned up except for the hide. The hide was given to the priest.


Leviticus Chapter 6 Second Continued Questions


1. Who was the sin offering for all believers?


2. He took our sin upon His body that we might take on His ________________.


3. Who had these sins been committed against?


4. Who must we see in these sin offerings?


5. What must a person do before deciding to totally commit to follow Christ?


6. Who lost her life when she looked back?


7. What is the message in Luke 9:62?


8. Who did Jesus say could not be His disciple?


9. When can you stop doing the job God called you to do?


10. In Revelation 1:6, what 2 things are the Christians called?


11. In Revelation 5:10, we read that we shall reign where?


12. Who is Jesus called in Revelation 17:14?


13. In the same verse, the Christians are called 3 things, what are they?


14. What does the author believe is meant by eating in the sanctuary?


15. What has no place in the church?


16. Where will the animal be killed for the sin offering?


17. Who opened the door that we Christians might fellowship with God?


18. What is the only payment for sin acceptable unto God?


19. What one word tells what Jesus was for us?


20. What does. John 6:53 say that we must do to have life in us?


21. Why was the garment the priest wore holy?


22. Where do we find the Scripture that tells us to be separate?


23. Why was the earthen vessel to be broken after being used in this offering?


24. What had to be done to the brazen vessel?


25. The males (in chapter 6:29), represented whom?


26. All believers in Christ are spoken of as ____ of God.


27. Who are the bride of Christ?


28. Where do we find the Scripture that says there is no male or female, because ye are all one in Christ Jesus?


29. There is a ____________ body, and there is a _____________ body.


30. The first Adam was a living soul: the last Adam was a ______________ ________.





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Leviticus 7



Leviticus Chapter 7

Verses 1-10: More details are given for the "trespass offering", including the requirements for the priest who ate these sacrifices and further instructions concerning the priestly portion of the "burnt" and the "Meat" offerings.


The trespass or guilt offering (see notes on 5:14 - 6:7).


(Verses 7-10), provide a brief discussion on what may be eaten by the priest.


Leviticus 7:1 "Likewise this [is] the law of the trespass offering: it [is] most holy."


Or the various rites and rules to be observed at the offering of it. The persons for whom it was to be made are described in the two preceding chapters (Lev. 5:1). Both such that sinned through ignorance, and knowingly, and here the place and parts of the offering, and how to be disposed of, are declared.


"It is most holy": Wholly devoted for sacred use, either to the Lord, or to his priests. There were some things the Jews call light holy things, and others most holy in the highest degree. Of this sort was the trespass offering (see note on 2:3).


All of this has been dealt with in detail in a previous lesson, but we can always find another lesson in all of these rituals of service to God. The one thing that stands out to me, in all of this is that all of this is done to bring man into right standing with holy God. Praise God, Jesus took care of all of this for the Christian. Jesus fulfilled every aspect of all of these offerings at once when He gave His body in sacrifice for all who would believe. I have said before, but I think it bears repeating, that the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem was allowed by God to stop the people from continuing to sacrifice. Jesus did it all. His sacrifice was the ultimate sacrifice which took the place of all sacrifices. His sacrifice one time was for all time for everyone who would believe. If you believe that Jesus was the perfect sacrifice, there is no more need to sacrifice.


Leviticus 7:2 "In the place where they kill the burnt offering shall they kill the trespass offering: and the blood thereof shall he sprinkle round about upon the altar."


"In the place where they kill the burnt offering shall they kill the trespass offering (see Lev. 1:11).


"And the blood thereof shall he sprinkle round about upon the altar": On the upper part of it. There was a scarlet thread that was drawn around the altar in the middle, the blood of some of the sacrifices was sprinkled below it. And some above it, as was the blood of the trespass offering.


About the only thing that we need to point out here is, the blood in this particular instance was not put on the horns of the altar. In most of the sin offerings, the blood was applied to the horns of the altar, but in this trespass offering, it will be sprinkled all around on the altar. Horns denote power, as you remember.


Leviticus 7:3 "And he shall offer of it all the fat thereof; the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards,"


To the Lord, that being claimed by him, as in the peace offerings of the herd, and of the flock, whether a bullock or cow, a lamb or a goat (Lev. 3:3). And in the sin offering of the bullock (Lev. 1:8).


"And the rump, or tail, which of sheep and rams, for the trespass offering, was very large and fat in those countries (see notes on Exodus 29:22, Lev. 3:9).


"And the fat that covereth the inwards": Called the "omentum".


Leviticus 7:4 "And the two kidneys, and the fat that [is] on them, which [is] by the flanks, and the caul [that is] above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away:"


Which are usually covered with fat.


"Which is by the flanks": Or rather that which is "upon" them; for this respects not the situation of the kidneys, nor the fat upon them, but the fat which is upon the flanks. As distinct from that, and where there are great collops of it (see Job 15:27).


"And the caul that is above the liver": The lobe upon the liver, according to the Septuagint.


"With the kidneys, it shall he take away": All the fat before mentioned, together with the kidneys, were to be taken away from the ram of the trespass offering, and burnt, as follows.


Leviticus 7:5 "And the priest shall burn them upon the altar [for] an offering made by fire unto the LORD: it [is] a trespass offering."


Fat taken off of the several parts before mentioned. And the kidneys which were to be:


"For an offering made by fire unto the Lord": And was acceptable to him, being typical of the offering of Christ. Which is a sweet smelling savor, bearing the fire of divine wrath in the room and stead of his people.


"It is the trespass offering": An offering for a trespass committed, to make atonement for it. And this part of it, the burning of the fat, was properly the offering to the Lord, all the rest were the priest's, as follows.


We went into great detail in a previous lesson in this series on why the inward parts were to be burned. The fat of course, was always burned. Here is just one statement to remind us. The body of Jesus Christ took on the sins of the whole world. The Spirit within that body was God. The Spirit of God within the body of Jesus was always Holy. The Spirit of Jesus was always desiring to please the Father. These inward parts here that make a sweet savor to God, are like the Spirit of God within Jesus' flesh. The Spirit of Jesus glorified the Father in everything He did on earth. The sweet smelling savor symbolizes the glorifying of the Father by Jesus.


Leviticus 7:6 "Every male among the priests shall eat thereof: it shall be eaten in the holy place: it [is] most holy."


Of the flesh of it, after the fat was taken off and burnt. The rest belonged to the priests and their sons, and to them only, not to their wives and daughters.


"It shall be eaten in the holy place": In the court of the tabernacle, in some apartment in it, for that purpose, as afterwards in the temple. It was not to be carried home to their houses, for all in the family to partake of, only the priests and their sons were to eat of it.


"It is most holy": And therefore none but such who were devoted to holy services might eat of it. Only sanctified persons, true believers, who are made priests unto God, have a right to eat of the altar Christ, or, can eat his flesh in a spiritual sense, and feed upon him by faith, and receive nourishment from him (Heb. 13:10).


Remember from the previous lesson that, the priests (male), represents all Christians, male and female.


John 1:12 "But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, [even] to them that believe on his name:"


Notice in the following Scripture, who are the sons of God.


Romans 8:14 "For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God."


All believers in Christ, male and female are also the bride of Christ. (In Galatians 3:28), you may read where there is no male or female with God.


Leviticus 7:7 "As the sin offering [is], so [is] the trespass offering: [there is] one law for them: the priest that maketh atonement therewith shall have [it]."


"One law for them" both mean that whatever the priest was allowed from the "sin offering", he could have from the "trespass offering" (5:5-6; see note on 6:26).


We must not forget; that these priests eating the flesh of the animal sacrificed as a substitute, is a shadow of us believers in Christ eating the flesh of our substitute (Jesus Christ). Let me repeat the Scripture one more time, so that we will not forget it.


John 6:53 "Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you."


We see from this the significance of the priests (who symbolize the Christians), eating the flesh of the sacrifice.


Leviticus 7:8 "And the priest that offereth any man's burnt offering, [even] the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt offering which he hath offered."


In which the flesh was wholly burnt, and nothing of it remained to requite the priest for his trouble, as in other offerings.


"Even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt offering, which he hath offered": In some cases, the skin itself was burnt, and then he would have nothing (see Lev. 4:11). But in others the skin was reserved for the priest. There seems to be an emphasis upon the phrase "to himself", and may signify, that though in other things other priests might partake with him, yet not in this. And so Maimonides observes, that the skin was not given to every priest, but to him that offered the sacrifice. And elsewhere he says, the skins of light holy things are the owner's, but the skins of the most holy things are the priest's.


Let me remind all of us, the importance of this hide. God made a covering for Adam and Eve of the hide of the animal God killed in the garden. The blood of Jesus is our covering (if we are a Christian). God has always provided a covering for man.


Leviticus 7:9 "And all the meat offering that is baked in the oven, and all that is dressed in the frying pan, and in the pan, shall be the priest's that offereth it."


Or "every meat offering", whether dressed in one way or another, and which was done in one or other of these three ways. Of which this was one, baked in an oven heated for that purpose.


"And all that is dressed in the frying pan": Such as we call pancakes.


"And in the pan": Which was different from the frying pan. It seems to be what was set upon a hearth made hot, and soon baked (see notes on Lev. 6:21). Of these three different ways of dressing the meat offering (see Lev. 2:4).


Leviticus 7:10 "And every meat offering, mingled with oil, and dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one [as much] as another."


Rather it should be rendered "or dry"; that is, as Jarchi interprets it, that has no oil in it. The meat offering in common, let it be dressed in what way whatsoever, was mingled with oil. But in the poor man's offering for sin, which was as a meat offering, no oil was to be put upon it (Lev. 5:11). But whether the offering was with or without oil, moist or dry, it;


"Shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as much as another": It was to be equally divided among them. Or a priest offering it at one time, was to have the same as another priest at another time. It was always alike, all that remained, except the handful that was burnt, was the priest's.


Again here, let us remember that the meat offering had no animal flesh. The things that make bread were the emblems of the meat offering. The meat offering was called meat, because it symbolized the body of Jesus Christ (the Bread of life).


Mark 14:22 "And as they did eat, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake [it], and gave to them, and said, Take, eat: this is my body."


In the next verse, Jesus calls Himself the Bread from heaven.


John 6:51 "I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world."


Verses 11-36: The peace offering (see notes on 3:1-17). The purposes for the peace offering are given (in verses 11-18). Special instructions which prevented a priest from being "cut off" (verses 19-27), and the allotment to Aaron and his sons (verses 28-36), are enumerated.


Verses 11-15: A peace offering for thanksgiving shall also be combined with a grain offering (see 2:1-16). The meat had to be eaten that same day, probably for the reason of health since it would rapidly spoil. And for the purpose of preventing people from thinking that such meat had some spiritual presence in it, thus developing some superstitions.


Leviticus 7:11 "And this [is] the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which he shall offer unto the LORD."


Some other laws and rules respecting the oblation of them. In (Lev. 3:1), an account is given of what they should be, both of the herd and flock, and of the burning of the fat of them. And here the several sorts of them are distinctly observed, what should be offered with them, and the part the priest should have of it, and when the flesh of them should be eaten.


This peace offering reminds us that the only true peace is in Jesus. The peace offering always was after the other offerings, and was given in praise and thanksgiving for what God had done for us through His Son Jesus Christ. We are saved by grace, not by our works. After studying these offerings in the Old Testament, we should be even more thankful for the great, completed work that Jesus did for all who would believe. This peace offering just shows what blessings are in store for those who choose Jesus as Savior and Lord.


Leviticus 7:12 "If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour, fried."


Which Jarchi restrains to the wonderful deliverances of seafaring persons, of travelers, and of such as have been confined in prison, or have labored under violent diseases and disorders of body. And so Aben Ezra seems to understand it only of thanksgivings on account of being delivered out of distress. But it might be for the common mercies of life, or any particular mercy or instance of divine goodness a man was sensible of, and thought proper in this way to make an acknowledgment of it.


"Then he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving": Which, if of the herd, was either a bullock or a cow; and if of the flock, was either a lamb or a goat.


"Unleavened cakes mingled with oil": Ten of them, according to the Jewish writers. The measure of flour, of which they were made, were, as Jarchi says, five Jerusalem seahs or pecks. Which were six of those used in the wilderness, and made twenty tenths or omers. An omer being the tenth part of an ephah. The oil they were mingled with, as to the quantity of it, was half a log. A fourth part of it was for the cakes, hastily baked, (said in the latter part of this verse to be fried). An eighth part for those baked, (intended in this clause), and an eighth part for the wafers next mentioned.


"And unleavened wafers anointed with oil": These were a thinner sort of cakes, made without leaven as the others. But the oil was not mixed with the flour in the making of them, but put upon them when made. And therefore, said to be anointed with it; there were also ten of these.


"And cakes mingled with oil of fine flour, fried": These were such as were hastily and not thoroughly baked (Lev. 6:21). Or, as Jarchi and Ben Gersom, they were mixed and boiled with hot water, as much as was sufficient. Or, according to Maimonides, were fried in oil; and there were ten of these, in all thirty.


I see in this, the continual thanksgiving that we should be giving God. He has blessed us so abundantly, far above what we could ask or think. How can we ever thank Him enough?


Leviticus 7:13 "Besides the cakes, he shall offer [for] his offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings."


"Leavened bread": Contrast the unleavened grain offering (see 2:11).


In a previous lesson, we mentioned that the leavened bread allowed here is because this offering pleases man. We see in these last lessons, not only the offerings which symbolize the crucifixion of Jesus, but the resurrection as well. The promise for the believer that brings him or her peace, is the hope of the resurrection.


Leviticus 7:14 "And of it he shall offer one out of the whole oblation [for] a heave offering unto the LORD, [and] it shall be the priest's that sprinkleth the blood of the peace offerings."


That is, one out of the unleavened cakes, and out of the unleavened wafers, and out of the cakes fried, and out of the cakes leavened. Lo, says Aben Ezra, four at least, and the truth is, adds he, there were ten. And so Maimonides says, the priest took out of all the four cakes, one out of every sort, as it is said, "and of it he shall offer one".


"And it shall be the priest's that sprinkleth the blood of the peace offerings": That is, that part of the cakes and bread, which is offered as a heave offering to the Lord, was the portion of the priests. And so Maimonides says, "the bread waved (rather heaved), with the thank offering was eaten by the priests, and the rest of the bread by the owners."


Leviticus 7:15 "And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered; he shall not leave any of it until the morning."


Having given directions about the cakes and bread that went along with the peace offerings, offered in thankfulness for mercies received. Instructions are next given about eating the flesh of them. And the order is, that that;


"Shall be eaten the same day that it is offered": Partly by him that brought them, and his family, and partly by the poor he was to invite to eat thereof. And also by the priests and Levites, who were to have their share of it (see Deut. 12:11).


"He shall not leave any of it until the morning": Which was ordered to encourage liberality to the priests, Levites, and others, since all must be eaten up before morning. According to the Jewish canons, they might eat it no longer than midnight; by that time, it was to be all consumed. And it is said, the wise men made a hedge to the law to keep men from sin.


One of the things that Christian ministers can take from this is, that communion should not be held over to the next service. We should eat all the remaining bread that was offered at the communion service and drink all of the remaining fruit of the vine that was poured out for serving. We should not pour it back in the bottle or put the bread back in the box. All that was prepared to serve must be consumed. Most all these offerings have been dealt with in detail in a previous lesson. Anything you might desire to know, in addition to the mentioned things here, refer back to the place they were previously mentioned.


Leviticus Chapter 7 Questions


1. What one thing does the author believe is the message throughout these offerings?


2. Why does the author believe God allowed the temple in Jerusalem to be destroyed?


3. What did Jesus' sacrifice of Himself do for all who will believe?


4. Where shall they kill the trespass offering?


5. What happened to the blood of the trespass offering?


6. What was the peculiar thing about where the blood of this offering was put?


7. What do horns denote?


8. What was burned in this offering for a sweet savor to God?


9. What was always burned in all the offerings?


10. The ______ of Jesus Christ took on the sins of the world.


11. These inward parts that make a sweet savor to God are like what within Jesus' flesh?


12. Who was to eat of the meat of the offering?


13. Who do these male priests represent?


14. From John 1:12, who may become the sons of God?


15. Which Scripture tells us there is no male or female with God?


16. Leviticus 7:7 says who shall eat of the offering?


17. These priests eating the flesh of the offering symbolize whom?


18. Who gets the skin of the burnt offering?


19. Of what did God make Adam and eve a covering for their bodies?


20. What is the covering for Christians?


21. What was the meat offering really?


22. Who is the Bread?


23. In what Scripture does Jesus call Himself the Bread from heaven?


24. Where is the only true peace found?


25. What two things was the peace offering?


26. Why was the leavened bread allowed in verse 13?


27. What two things do these offerings show us that Jesus did?


28. What is the promise made to believers in Christ that brings them peace?


29. What message for Christian ministers can be found in verses 14 and 15?




Leviticus Chapter 7 Continued

Verses 16-18: "Vow ... offering": The priest could eat the meat the same day or next day, but eating on the third day brought punishment.


Leviticus 7:16 "But if the sacrifice of his offering [be] a vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offereth his sacrifice: and on the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten:"


Be on account of a vow made, as, that if he was favored with such and such benefits, or delivered out of such and such troubles and distresses, then he would offer such a sacrifice.


"Or a voluntary offering": Without any condition or obligation. What from the mere motion of his mind he freely offered. Not being directed to it by any command of God, or under any necessity from a vow of his own, and without any view to; any future good to be enjoyed. Aben Ezra describes both the one and the other thus: A "vow" which he uttered with his lips in his distresses, a "voluntary offering", which his spirit made him willing to bring. A sacrifice to God neither for a vow nor for thanksgiving.


"It shall be eaten the same day that he offereth his sacrifice": That is, it shall be begun to be eaten then, and if all is eaten up it is very well. But they were not obliged in either of these cases, as in the preceding, to eat up all, and leave none to the morning. For it follows:


"And on the morrow also the remainder of it shall be eaten": Some of it, if thought fit, and could not be conveniently eaten, might be kept till the day after the sacrifice, but no longer.


It seems this offering varies from the other offerings in that this is a voluntary offering, and not a required offering. Of course, all the thank offerings were not required, but they were for a special thing God had done and were expected. This offering here is not expected, just done because the person loves God. The fact that this was a voluntary offering, gave a little more lee-way to the person offering and allowed for two days for it to be consumed. The vow offering would be showing that the vow made to God was completed. The voluntary offering would be a thanks praise to God. This would not necessarily be for any specific thing, but just to praise God for His activities in their life.


Leviticus 7:17 "But the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with fire."


What remained of it uneaten on the second day, and was kept till the third.


"Shall be burnt with fire": That it might neither corrupt, nor be put to superstitious uses, nor be of any profit in any respect. That so distrust of the care of Providence might be discouraged. Perhaps some respect may be had in the type to the resurrection of Christ on the third day, having seen no corruption.


Flesh carried over to the third day would certainly be spoiled, in the days when there was no refrigeration. The best thing to do with it would be to burn it up, so no one would be poisoned by it. In many of these offerings, we will see that God takes care of man.


Leviticus 7:18 "And if [any] of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity."


Any part of it, even the least.


"It shall not be accepted": As a sacrifice well pleasing to God; he will take no delight in it, or express any satisfaction therein. But, on the contrary, reject it with abhorrence.


"Neither shall it be imputed to him that offereth it": The Targum of Jonathan adds, for merit or righteousness. It shall not be accounted a righteous action, or the offeror receive any benefit by it.


"It shall be an abomination": To God, the flesh being kept so long, through a sordid and miserly disposition.


"And the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity": It shall not be forgiven him; he shall bear the punishment of it.


In all the offerings, we have seen that God will not accept things that are rejects. All the animals had to be the best. You can easily see why God would not count it a sacrifice to give Him, in a burnt offering, something that was ruined. We really know that someone who eats bad meat does bear the iniquity. They become very sick.


Verses 19-21: To be "cut off" was to be completely excluded from the community life of the Israelites and removed from God's covenant, either through banishment or execution (Gen. 17:14). Such harsh punishment was always the consequence when a person failed to treat what was holy with proper reverence (Heb. 10:26-31). Paul encouraged believers to demonstrate the same type of reverence and self-examination before partaking of the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11:27-29).


Leviticus 7:19 "And the flesh that toucheth any unclean [thing] shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire: and as for the flesh, all that be clean shall eat thereof."


That is, the flesh of the peace offerings. Should it be touched by any unclean person, man or woman. That was so in a ceremonial sense, being menstruous, or having touched anything unclean. Or touched by any unclean creature, as a dog or the like. As it might be while carried from the tabernacle to any of their tents or houses.


"It shall be burnt with fire": That no profit might be had of it; and this was to make them careful in carrying it from place to place.


"And as for the flesh, all that be clean shall eat thereof. That are clean in a ceremonial sense; as all that are clean in an evangelic sense. Through the blood and righteousness of Christ, may, by faith, eat his flesh and drink his blood. Jarchi observes, that whereas it is said (Deut. 12:27), "thou shall eat the flesh". Some might object and say, that none might eat of the peace offerings but the owners of them. Therefore, it is said here, "all that be clean shall eat". Not the owners only, nor the priests and Levites only, but whoever the offeror should invite to eat thereof, provided he was clean.


As I have said so many times during these lessons, so many of these ordinances are for the good of man. Notice the burning with fire is not in offering to God. This meat is not good for anything or anyone. The peace offerings were to thank God for fellowshipping with man. When we take of the communion table, we are really remembering and thanking Jesus for making it possible for us to fellowship with the Father. There is peace with God and man, and man should be thankful for it. The shed blood of Jesus Christ is what reconciled us to the Father. When mankind is at peace with God, we are saying that we trust in the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross to save us. We are told over and over in the words of Jesus, not to fear, but have faith. The Scripture in John which says; Let not your heart be troubled, makes us know that it is within our power not to worry. Fear is the opposite of faith. Have faith and pray for more faith every day. Learn to trust in Jesus Christ as your Savior and Lord. He is our only hope. Thank Him for the wonderful payment He made in our stead.


Leviticus 7:20 "But the soul that eateth [of] the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, that [pertain] unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, even that soul shall be cut off from his people."


That are offered up to him, and so are holy, and therefore not to be eaten by unholy persons. Or by any;


"Having his uncleanness upon him": A person that has an issue running out of him, a gonorrhea (see Lev. 15:2).


"Even that soul shall be cut off from his people": Be disfranchised as an Israelite, be debarred the privileges of the sanctuary. Or be cut off by death before the usual time and term of man's life. So those that eat and drink unworthily in the supper of our Lord, where his flesh is eaten and his blood drank, eat and drink damnation to themselves (1 Cor. 11:29).


We Christians are warned not to eat the communion unworthily in the following verse.


1 Corinthians 11:27 "Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink [this] cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord."


These following Scriptures can say it far better than I could ever express it.


Psalms 24:3-5 "Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD? or who shall stand in his holy place?" "He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully." "He shall receive the blessing from the LORD, and righteousness from the God of his salvation."


The Lord Jesus Christ took our sin upon His body on the cross, and in turn clothed us with His righteousness, if we have accepted Him as our Savior. Christians have been cleansed from all sin, but as long as we live in a house of flesh, that flesh will desire to sin. For a Christian to please God, our spirit has to rule over our flesh. We must not fall to fleshly temptation, nor should we touch (associate with), the unclean.


Leviticus 7:21 "Moreover the soul that shall touch any unclean [thing, as] the uncleanness of man, or [any] unclean beast, or any abominable unclean [thing], and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which [pertain] unto the LORD, even that soul shall be cut off from his people."


Person or thing, the dead body of a man, or the bone of a dead body, or a grave in which it was laid.


"As the uncleanness of man": The issue that runs from a profluvious person (see Lev. 15:2).


"Or any unclean beast": That was so by the law ceremonial (see Lev. 11:4).


"Or any abominable unclean thing": Which the Targum of Jonathan interprets of every unclean reptile (see Lev. 11:20).


"And eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which pertain unto the Lord, even that soul shall be cut off from his people (see notes on Lev. 7:20).


The message for the believers in this is found in the 6th chapter of Hebrews. This Scripture above is speaking of those who have been cleansed and are permitted to eat of this meat. We have said so many times that this is a shadow of those who are Christians eating of the flesh of Jesus. After we have eaten of this Holy One, and then go back into a sinful way of life, and start fellowshipping with those of the earth (the unclean), that soul shall be cut off from God.


Hebrews 6:4-6 "For [it is] impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost," "And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come," "If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put [him] to an open shame."


Leviticus 7:22 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


This formula introduces a fresh communication made to the lawgiver (Lev. 7:22-27). Containing explanations and restrictions of the precept laid down in (Lev. 3:17), about the fat and blood of animals. The section before us, therefore, supplements and expands the previous law upon the same subject. Just as the foregoing section supplemented and expanded the regulations about the different sacrifices.


Again, we are reminded here where this message originated and to whom it was given.


Leviticus 7:23 "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, Ye shall eat no manner of fat, of ox, or of sheep, or of goat."


Putting them in mind, by repeating to them the laws concerning fat and blood (Lev. 3:17).


"Ye shall eat no manner of fat": If any creature fit for food, whose flesh otherwise may be eaten, and particularly;


"Of ox, or of sheep, or of goats": Creatures used in sacrifice. Though this is not to be restrained to such of them, and the fat of them that were sacrificed. Whose fat was claimed by the Lord as his, and was burnt on his altar. But this is to be understood of the fat of these creatures when killed for their common use, for the food of them and their families. The fat even of these was not to be eaten. That which was not separated from the flesh, but mixed with it, might be eaten, but not that which was separated.


Oxen and sheep and goats were animals that were sacrificed to God many times. God reminded Moses to remind the people that they were to eat no fat from the type of animals that were offered to God. The fat and the blood were reserved for God.


Leviticus 7:24 "And the fat of the beast that dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn with beasts, may be used in any other use: but ye shall in no wise eat of it."


Of any disease, and is not regularly killed.


"And the fat of that which is torn with beasts": With wild beasts.


"May be used in any other use": As in medicine, for plasters, or for making candles. Or for greasing of anything to make it smooth and pliable, or the like.


"But ye shall in no wise eat of it": Such carcasses themselves were not to be eaten of, and one would think their fat in course must be unlawful. But however, to prevent the doing of it, this particular law was given. And those that broke this were doubly guilty, as the Jews observe. Once in eating things that died of themselves, or were torn with beasts, and again by eating the fat of them.


These animals would be unfit for sacrifice to God. He allowed them to use this fat for purposes other than consumption (eating), by man.


Leviticus 7:25 "For whosoever eateth the fat of the beast, of which men offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD, even the soul that eateth [it] shall be cut off from his people."


As oxen, sheep, rams, or goats. Meaning not only the fat of those that are offered, but the fat of all those of the like kind.


"Even the soul that eateth it shall be cut off from his people" (see notes on Lev. 7:20). Maimonides observes, that the punishment of cutting off is enjoined for the eating of fat, because men used to count it delicious. For which reason also God would honor his sacrifices with it. And he further observes, that the fat of the intestines contains too much fatty acids, hinders digestion, generates gross and frigid blood, hence it is much better it should be burnt than eaten. And that blood and what dies of itself are of difficult digestion, and of bad nourishment. Wherefore the latter is forbidden in (Lev. 7:24). And the former in (Lev. 7:26), of the punishment for eating fat.


This is stealing the things of God for your own personal use. This sin would be against God Himself. This would be a deliberate act of defiance toward God. It would even be like trying to say we are equal with God. Many false teachers today are saying that man, who is saved by Jesus Christ, is equal with God. This is false. We Christians are not equal with God. We are His servants, who have been adopted into His family. We share in the inheritance, because Jesus purchased our right to the inheritance for us, but we will never be a god.


Leviticus 7:26 "Moreover ye shall eat no manner of blood, [whether it be] of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings."


Of any of the above creatures, or any other, even of any clean creature, and much less of an unclean one.


"Whether it be of fowl or of beast": Of all sorts and kinds. Jarchi thinks, the words being thus expressed, the blood of fishes and locusts is excepted, and so lawful to eat.


"In any of your dwellings": This shows that this law is not to be restrained to creatures slain in sacrifice in the tabernacle, and to the blood of them. But to be understood of all such as were slain in their own houses for food, and the blood of them.


All blood belongs to God. Many devil worshippers today drink blood in their meetings. If nothing else told of their terrible error, this should. God has forbidden man to drink or eat blood throughout the Bible. Even in the New Testament, one of the ordinances is to eat no blood.


Acts 21:25 "As touching the Gentiles which believe, we have written [and] concluded that they observe no such thing, save only that they keep themselves from [things] offered to idols, and from blood, and from strangled, and from fornication."


This is the law of the early church, but notice, they must refrain from the taking of blood by eating or drinking it.


Leviticus 7:27 "Whatsoever soul [it be] that eateth any manner of blood, even that soul shall be cut off from his people."


The Targum of Jonathan adds, of any living creature, that is, of any while it is alive. For the Jews always interpret the law (in Gen. 9:4), of the member of a living creature torn off from it, and its flesh with the blood eaten directly.


"Even that soul shall be cut off from his people": Maimonides observes, that to some sorts of food that cutting off is threatened, particularly to blood. Because of the eager desire of men to eat it in those times, and because it precipitated them to a certain species of idolatry. He means that of the Zabians, of which (see note on Ezek. 33:25). Of the true reason of the prohibition of eating blood under the law (see Lev. 17:10).


There is great freedom in Christianity, but notice that there were a few things so abominable to God, that they will not be overlooked. God will still hold a person responsible for drinking or eating blood.


Leviticus Chapter 7 Continued Questions


1. The vow, or the voluntary offering, could be eaten when?


2. Why was this variation from the normal allowed?


3. What did the vow offering show?


4. What was to be done with anything left to the third day?


5. What would happen to flesh unrefrigerated by the third day?


6. In many of these offerings, God was doing what?


7. What was any of the flesh eaten on the third day to God? One word.


8. What happens to a person who eats bad meat?


9. What were they to do with flesh that touched any unclean thing?


10. Why could not the burning of this spoiled flesh be an offering to God?


11. The peace offerings were for what purpose?


12. When we take communion as Christians, what are we doing?


13. What reconciled the Christians to the Father?


14. What is the opposite of faith?


15. In what book in the Bible did Jesus say; Let not your heart be troubled?


16. What will happen to those who eat of the flesh, while they are unclean?


17. Where do we find the dangers of Christians taking of communion unworthily?


18. Who shall ascend unto the hill of the Lord, or stand in His holy place?


19. If we are believers, Jesus took our sin upon His body and clothed us with what?


20. We Christians have been cleansed from all sin, but still have to overcome what?


21. How can a Christian please God?


22. What is the message for believers in verse 21?


23. What will happen to the soul who goes back into a sinful way of life, after they have been saved and filled with the Holy Ghost?


24. Why is the verse; "And the LORD said unto Moses, saying," repeated so much?


25. Why were the ox, sheep, and goat named specifically when God said not to eat their fat?


26. Why were they allowed to use the fat in verse 24, for other purposes other than eating it?


27. What is verse 25 speaking of?


28. What false teaching is being passed off as being Christian?


29. Who are the Christians in Christ?


30. What do many devil worshippers in our day do, that is an abomination to God?


31. What does Acts 21:25 tell us about the law of the early church?


32. There is great ____________ in Christianity




Leviticus Chapter 7 Second Continued

Verses 28-36: This summary of sacrifices from the preceding chapters is a reminder that Yahweh prescribed these offerings as an act of mercy, to enable His people to approach Him and please Him. All these offerings were fulfilled in the perfect sacrifice of Christ on the cross.


Leviticus 7:28 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


At the same time the above laws were delivered; for what follows relates to the sacrifice of the peace offerings.


"Saying": As follows.


When we see this statement made by the LORD, we know we begin a new train of thought. Remember, LORD here means Jehovah.


Leviticus 7:29 "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, He that offereth the sacrifice of his peace offerings unto the LORD shall bring his oblation unto the LORD of the sacrifice of his peace offerings."


"Offerings ... sacrifice": The worshiper made a peace offering from his sacrifice so that the Lord received the blood (verse 33), and the fat (verse 33). The priests received the breast (verses 30-31), and the right thigh (verse 33). The worshiper could use the rest for himself.


As I have said so many times, we must see a message for Christians in this, if we are to benefit by studying these offerings. We mentioned this before, but it bears repeating again. The only peace any of us have is the peace that Jesus brings us. Jesus is THE KING OF PEACE. He is our peace.


Ephesians 2:14 "For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition [between us];"


The He, in this Scripture, is Jesus. We are saved by grace and nothing else, but those who are truly saved want to work for God. There are 3 Scriptures (in James 1), I would like to quote here in regards to this.


James 2:18 "Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: show me thy faith without thy works, and I will show thee my faith by my works."


James 2:20 "But wilt thou know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead?"


James 2:26 "For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also."


Verses 30-32: "Wave offering": This was a symbolic act indicating the offering was for the Lord. Bread (Exodus 29:23-24), meat (Exodus 29:22-24), gold (Exodus 38:24), oil (Lev. 14:12), and grain (Lev. 23:11), all served as wave offerings. Another type of offering was the heave offering. Jewish tradition portrayed the wave offering as being presented with a horizontal motion and the heave offering with a vertical motion, as suggested by (Lev. 10:15).


Leviticus 7:30 "His own hands shall bring the offerings of the LORD made by fire, the fat with the breast, it shall he bring, that the breast may be waved [for] a wave offering before the LORD."


That is, such parts of the peace offerings as were to be burnt with fire, as the fat on several parts described in (Lev. 3:3). The owners of the offerings were to bring them in the manner as will be presently observed.


"The fat with the breast, it shall he bring": The fat to be burnt, and the breast for the priest and his sons, as in the following verse (Lev. 7:31).


"That the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lord": How this waving was performed (see notes on Exodus 29:24), particularly with respect to these peace offerings it was thus. If a thank offering, the priest takes of the bread brought with it (one cake) out of ten, and lays it with the breast, the shoulder, and the inwards, and waves all upon the hands of the owners, on which he puts the fat. Then the breast and the shoulder above (i.e. upon the fat), then the two kidneys, and the caul, and the liver above them. And if there was any bread, he put it over them, and waved all, putting his hand under the hands of the owner.


One thing we must remember in this and all other offerings; this has to be a deliberate act of the offeror. Just as each person, coming to Christ, has to desire to come to the Lord. The Lord Jesus does not just save everyone; the person being saved has to desire to be saved. I believe that is what is intended above, when it says (His own hands). Salvation is individual. Salvation is for whosoever will. We have to desire salvation to receive it. God will not overrule our will and save us. Salvation comes to those who turn their will over to God's will. We must be willing to be saved. There is something man has to do to be saved. In an act of our own will, we must believe in Jesus Christ as our Savior.


Acts 16:31 "And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house."


When the offering was waved before the LORD, even though it was not burned up, it was first offered to God. Things Christians give to the church, even though it pays the preacher's salary, are offerings to God.


Leviticus 7:31 "And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar: but the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons'."


Of burnt offering, even the fat upon the inwards, the two kidneys, the flanks, the caul, and liver.


"But the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons": Which being waved before the Lord for a wave offering, was the Lord's, and so was given to his priests to eat of, for the service done by them. It being but reasonable that they that serve at the altar should live of it. And thus, with other things, a maintenance was provided for the priests and their families. As it should also to be for Gospel ministers under the present dispensation.


We see in this that it is not wrong for the servants of God to live of the gifts brought to God. God has His portion, but the ministers also, may partake of the gifts of God.


1 Corinthians 9:13-14 " Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live [of the things] of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar?" "Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel."


Leviticus 7:32 "And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest [for] a heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings."


Whether of an ox or a cow, a lamb or a goat.


"Of the sacrifices of your peace offerings": Which were of either of these creatures. The Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it, "the right arm from the shoulder to the elbow." The breast being the seat of wisdom, and the shoulder of strength. Some think this denotes Christ as the wisdom and power of God unto his people, his priests. Who have all their knowledge and strength from him. And who bears them on his heart and on his shoulder.


The priest was to have the best offering, after it was heaved (dedicated), to God. The right side was always the best blessing. The heave offering was waved from side to side while being lifted up and down. Even though this was not burned as a sweet savor, this heaving showed that it was offered to God.


Leviticus 7:33 "He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right shoulder for [his] part."


Who sprinkled the blood of them upon the altar round about, and burnt the fat upon it, which were rites enjoined to be observed (Lev. 3:2).


"Shall have the right shoulder for his part": His particular part and share, because of his service. Aben Ezra remarks, that the right shoulder was given to him that sprinkled the blood, and the breast to all the priests. And Jarchi observes, that he that was fit for sprinkling the blood, and burning the fat, and went out an unclean person in the time of sprinkling the blood, or burning the fat, had no part in the flesh.


In this offering, the best was given to the priest who offered the blood of this offering. The word that was translated shoulder here, means to run. On an animal all four legs are used to run, so it could have been any of them. It really does not matter which leg it was. It does matter that it was from the right side, which was the better of the blessings. It would have been an honor to offer the blood, and probably meant that it was the son who was directly in line to be the high priest after his father.


Leviticus 7:34 "For the wave breast and the heave shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons by a statute for ever from among the children of Israel."


These two parts were particularly pitched upon and selected.


"From off the sacrifices of their peace offering": The rest being allowed the owners, besides what were burnt.


"And have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons, by a statute for ever from among the children of Israel": As long as the priesthood lasted, even to the coming of the Messiah, in whom all these sacrifices would have their accomplishment and their end.


The priests were a family who had no inheritance in the land. They were to live of the things of God. They were to be a separated people who depended entirely upon the Lord. The tribe of Levi actually took the place of the first born in each family. This offering that was theirs was for ever. If you look at their counterpart in our society today, they would be the ministers.


Leviticus 7:35 "This [is the portion] of the anointing of Aaron, and of the anointing of his sons, out of the offerings of the LORD made by fire, in the day [when] he presented them to minister unto the LORD in the priest's office;"


Of his being anointed to the priestly office. This is the part allotted and assigned him for the execution of it. This is the reward, as Aben Ezra interprets it, of his faithful performance of it. Namely, his having the wave breast and heave shoulder of the peace offerings, and a cake out of every one of the unleavened cakes, together with the leavened bread. Besides other perquisites from other offerings.


"And of the anointing of his sons": The successors of him in the priest hood. The Targum of Jonathan adds, above all their brethren the Levites.


"Out of the offerings of the Lord made by fire": Out of such whose fat on the several parts of them was burnt with fire, such as the peace offerings were.


"In the day when he presented them to minister unto the Lord in the priest's office": When they were ordered to be taken out from among the children of Israel, and to be consecrated to, and invested with, the priest's office. As they were by Moses, and presented by him unto him as his priests. At that time the above portion was assigned them, as follows in the next verse.


Aaron and his sons did not choose this job for themselves, but were called of God for this purpose. Ministers could take a lesson from this today. If God did not call you to the ministry, you should not preach. No one should choose the ministry for a profession. The only way God will accept you as a minister is, if He called you. Ministry is a calling, not a profession.


Leviticus 7:36 "Which the LORD commanded to be given them of the children of Israel, in the day that he anointed them, [by] a statute for ever throughout their generations."


Whenever they brought their offerings to be offered up by them, such parts thereof were ordered to be allowed them as theirs.


"In the day that he anointed them": Or from the day they were anointed of Moses, by the direction of the Lord. From that time, they had a right and claim to the above things, out of the sacrifices brought, so Aben Ezra. "He anointed them" (see 8:30). And this was;


"By a statute for ever throughout their generations": In all successive generations, unto the coming of the Messiah, which would put an end to their priesthood. Thus, the Lord provided for the maintenance of his ministers, till that time came. And since it has been the ordinance of Christ, that they which preach the Gospel should live of the Gospel (1 Cor. 9:13).


To try to preach without the anointing of God, would be a disaster. My own personal belief is that God sets persons aside for His ministry from their birth. Sometimes a person may be a long time in answering the call, but it is there from birth. It seems as if God protects those He has called with a special protection all of their life.


Verses 37-38: Moses gives a summary conclusion of (1:3 - 7:36).


Leviticus 7:37 "This [is] the law of the burnt offering, of the meat offering, and of the sin offering, and of the trespass offering, and of the consecrations, and of the sacrifice of the peace offerings;"


"This is the law of the burnt offering": As delivered (Leviticus 6:9);


"Of the meat offering (as in Leviticus 6:14);


"And of the sin offering (as in Leviticus 6:25);


"And of the trespass offering (as in Leviticus 7:1);


"And of the consecrations; of Aaron and his sons to the priest's office (as in Lev. 6:20).


"And of the sacrifice of the peace offerings" (as in this chapter, Leviticus 7:11), for this is only a recapitulation of the several laws respecting these things before observed.


"And of the consecrations": This refers to the offerings at the ordination of Aaron and his sons (see 8:14-36; Exodus 29:1-46).


We see from this that, God provides for those in His service by the unique way of sharing in the gifts offered to Him. These offerings are for man to be able to fellowship with holy God. As we said at the beginning of (chapter 7), all the offerings and the consecrations and the sacrifices are fulfilled for the Christian by our Lord Jesus Christ.


Leviticus 7:38 "Which the LORD commanded Moses in mount Sinai, in the day that he commanded the children of Israel to offer their oblations unto the LORD, in the wilderness of Sinai."


Or "by" or "near" Mount Sinai. For the above laws were not given to Moses when on the mount, but after the tabernacle was erected. And out of it, as appears (from Lev. 1:1), and to which what follows agrees.


"In the day that he commanded the children of Israel to offer their oblations unto the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai". Where they were when the above laws were delivered to them, and which wilderness had its name from the mount near to which they now were. And where the tabernacle was pitched, from where the Lord spoke. And so the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it, "in the tabernacle which they made for him in the wilderness of Sinai". There they were ordered to offer their oblations of every sort, as before directed. It should be observed, that this is understood of the command given in the wilderness to offer sacrifices, but not of the sacrifices themselves then offered. Which were not done while there (see Jer. 7:22).


We see these laws were given to Moses at Mount Sinai. They were to be kept forever by God's people. Physical Israel kept these in the physical. Spiritual Israel (Christians), keep all of these when they accept Jesus as the final fulfillment of them all. Jesus fulfilled the law when He gave His body on the cross as our substitution. Thank God, His sacrifice was sufficient for all time for all who will believe. How can you neglect so great a gift? Accept Jesus as your Savior and Lord today. Christians have a hope that the rest of the world does not have. We have the hope of the resurrection.


Leviticus Chapter 7 Second Continued Questions


1. Where is the only real peace found?


2. Why should a Christian study about these offerings?


3. Ephesians 2:14 tells us what?


4. What are we Christians saved by, and nothing else?


5. Faith without works is _______.


6. The body without the spirit is dead, so faith without ________ is dead also.


7. What does the statement "his own hands" say to us?


8. Who is salvation offered to?


9. What must we do to be saved?


10. What did the waving of the offering indicate?


11. What lesson can we learn from 1 Corinthians 9:13-14?


12. Why was the right shoulder mentioned specifically?


13. Describe how the heave offering was made?


14. What did the heaving of this offering show?


15. Who was the best of the offering given to?


16. What does the word shoulder literally translate?


17. Which of the sons was probably the one who offered the blood?


18. What were the priests and their families to live of?


19. The tribe of Levi actually took the place of whom?


20. Who would be the counterpart of these priests today?


21. Who decided Aaron and his sons would be priests?


22. What lesson could modern ministers take from this?


23. Who should choose the ministry for a profession?


24. Ministry is a _______, not a ___________.


25. To try to preach without the ____________ ___ _______, would be a disaster.


26. What purpose did these offerings have?


27. How do the Christians fulfill these offerings and consecrations?


28. Where did Moses receive these instructions?


29. Compare physical Israel and spiritual Israel in all of these offerings





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Leviticus 8



Leviticus Chapter 8

In the last few lessons, we saw God through Moses, training Aaron and his sons in the way all of the offerings were to be made. At the time this was done, the head of each house operated as the priest of his family. Someone may ask, why the family of Aaron was chosen to be the priestly family? The first born son of each family was God's. God worked out a system where each first born son could be purchased back from God by paying the silver shekel of the temple. When Moses came down the mountain with the 10 Commandments, Moses told them all that were on God's side to come to him.


The tribe of Levi came to Moses. At that moment, God decided the priestly tribe would be the tribe of Levi. From the tribe of Levi, God chose Aaron and his sons to be the first high priest and priests to carry on the work in the tabernacle. In the last few lessons, we have seen the things Aaron and his sons were instructed on. Notice, that they were not instructed on how to make a living, or how to conduct worldly lives. They were taught the works of God. Ministers today being taught for the ministry should be taught more Bible and less finance and psychology. Enough said, now we will get on with the lesson.


Verses 1-36: Aaron and his sons were consecrated before they ministered to the Lord. The consecration of Aaron and his sons had been ordered long before (see notes on Exodus 29:1-28). But is here described with all the ceremonial details as it was done after the tabernacle was completed and the regulations for the various sacrifices enacted.


Leviticus 8:1 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


The following section or paragraph, relating to the consecration of Aaron and his sons, was delivered, according to Jarchi, seven days before the setting up of the tabernacle. But to me it seems to have been delivered after the setting it up, since it was out of the tabernacle that the Lord said all those things recorded in the preceding chapters. And after he had given out the laws concerning sacrifices. Then he renewed the order for the consecration of Aaron and his sons, that they might offer them.


"Saying": As follows.


If we will notice in all this, Moses was God's earthly agent at this time. In fact, we will see Moses in the next few verses acting in the position of God's ordained high priest, in the ordination of Aaron and his sons. Remember, the training these separated men had, was in the ways of God.


Leviticus 8:2 "Take Aaron and his sons with him, and the garments, and the anointing oil, and a bullock for the sin offering, and two rams, and a basket of unleavened bread;"


"The garments" (see notes on Exodus 28:1-43).


"The anointing oil": Oil was used for ceremonial anointing (8:12, 30).


"Sin offering" (see notes on 4:1 - 5:13, especially 4:3-12).


God gives Moses specific instructions on exactly what he will need in the ordination services. Moses and Aaron must have everything needed ready for the services. In the gathering of the proper materials for this ordination, I see that before a person is ordained of God to be a minister, much preparation is necessary. A person must carefully weigh the cost before beginning. The call of God is without repentance, so we must be sure before we decide to embark on this road.


Leviticus 8:3 "And gather thou all the congregation together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation."


That is, the heads of the tribes and the elders of the people, as Aben Ezra interprets it. For the whole body of the people, and every individual of them, could not be got together.


"Unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation": Taking this for the whole court itself, as it sometimes is. Though no doubt on this occasion as great a number was convened as well could be admitted into the court, or about it. To be spectators and witnesses of the solemn investiture of Aaron and his sons with the priestly office.


This is not to be done privately. This should be an event for all the congregation to witness. You remember, Jesus was baptized in the river Jordan where many had come to be baptized. The congregation must be aware of who God had ordained to lead them, before they would follow his instructions. It is wonderful to be a leader, but the people have to be willing to follow, before you can lead them.


Leviticus 8:4 "And Moses did as the LORD commanded him; and the assembly was gathered together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation."


He convened Aaron and his sons, and the heads of the people, at the door of the tabernacle, and came himself. And brought with him the garments, the oil, and sacrifices, even everything necessary for the consecration.


"And the assembly was gathered together unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation": And this was, according to the Targum of Jonathan, on the twenty third day of the month Adar or February. But it rather seems to be later, some time in the beginning of Nisan or March, and before the Passover began (see Num. 9:1).


Notice in all of this, that Moses does exactly as God has instructed him. These are gathered at the entrance, you will note.


Leviticus 8:5 "And Moses said unto the congregation, This [is] the thing which the LORD commanded to be done."


Having convened them, he opened to them the reason of their being called together, which was not done of himself, but by divine direction.


"This is the thing which the Lord commanded to be done": Namely, what follows, concerning the consecration of Aaron and his sons to be priests. And the investiture of them with that office, attended with various rites and ceremonies to be performed, of which they were to be witnesses.


You may remember from the Exodus teaching, that the people feared God greatly, and they had asked Moses to talk to God for them. They were used to hearing from God through Moses. Then it must be Moses to tell them that a new day has dawned, and now they will have new instructions on how to approach holy God. Moses reminds them that this is not instructions from himself, but from the LORD through him.


Leviticus 8:6 "And Moses brought Aaron and his sons, and washed them with water."


Presenting their bodies a living sacrifice (Rom. 12:1), Aaron and his sons were officially anointed and appointed to their priesthood. By comparison, Jesus needed no preliminary sacrifices, as He had no sin.


This washing them with water is very similar to baptism. This is washing the ways of the world off of them. This removing the earth from Aaron and his sons was the first step to being ordained of God to do the work He has called them to do. Notice at the beginning of Jesus ministry, even though He had no sin, the ceremonial washing (baptism), was performed. We Christians must be washed in the blood of the Lamb of God (Jesus), before we can put on our robe of righteousness. Even in becoming a Christian, the heart must be prepared (we must repent of our sins). Then we are baptized (buried with Christ, and rise to new life in Him). Then, we are ready to witness for Him.


Leviticus 8:7 "And he put upon him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound [it] unto him therewith."


To the laver which was in the court of the tabernacle.


"And washed them with water": To show that they should be clean that bear the vessels of the Lord, and offer the sacrifices of the people. All that are in public office in the house of God ought to have both clean hands and a pure heart. To hold the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience, and to be of a pure and holy conversation. And indeed, all that are made kings and priests to God, as all the saints are, they are washed from their sins in the blood of Jesus (Rev. 1:5).


At the baptism of Jesus, we saw the Dove descend upon Him. Jesus already was full of the Spirit of God within His flesh before baptism, but now He was clothed with the Spirit, as well. God the Father confirmed Jesus' ordination when the voice came from heaven and said


Matthew 3:17 "And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."


This coat, put on the priest, was his robe of authority from God. It also was his covering. This robe was of fine white linen, which symbolizes righteousness. This is the same type of white linen that the Christians will wear in heaven (washed in the blood of the Lamb). The girdle was a sash made to hold this robe tight to the body of the priest. The ephod was like a vest that went over the robe. The vest had two onyx stones at the shoulders with the twelve tribes of Israel engraved on them. The priest carried the people on his shoulders. Underneath the onyx stones was a pocket of Gold which held the stones. Gold symbolizes God. This shows me that this tribe was on the high priest's shoulder, but God was there also to undergird and strengthen the high priest for this great task.


This ephod, or vest, was held together with golden chains. So much gold here tells me that the strength of the high priest was in God. On this ephod was the breast plate a span wide and a span long which held 12 stones which represented the 12 tribes of Israel. This tells me that all 12 tribes were not just on the shoulders of the high priest, but on his heart, as well. These stones were also, mounted in Gold. We Christians must be set in Jesus also. The Israelites must be stayed on God (this is what the mounted in gold shows), for the priest to help them. There was a pouch on this ephod between the vest and the heart of the high priest. God would speak through the Urim and the Thummim to the people.


I believe God spoke to the people through the heart of the high priest. I also believe for a minister to be effective in bringing the message of God to the people, God must press into the heart of the minister and speak through the heart of the minister. Even Jesus said He spoke the words of the Father.


John 14:10 " Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works."


I believe in the garment of the high priest; God is showing us that first you must be called to be a minister of God's Word. The next step is to study the Bible and prepare yourself to handle God's Word correctly. The washing shows the putting off of the world and everything of it. Then the ordination begins. God gives the minister the white linen garment of righteousness. A minister must be separated from the world and must live a separated life. They also must be righteous in God's sight. They must be willing to take the whole congregation on their shoulders with the help of God. They must keep the congregation on their heart. The minister must draw strength from God to hold this congregation together. The minister must decide from the beginning, that the message must be God's message that God has placed on the heart of the minister. No ministry based on any other system can ever work. This is God's plan, not man's. One of the most important things in the ministry is to be endowed with power from on High through the baptism (dedication), in the Holy Spirit of God. The power of the minister and his message is when God speaks to the people through them.


Luke 12:11-12 "And when they bring you unto the synagogues, and [unto] magistrates, and powers, take ye no thought how or what thing ye shall answer, or what ye shall say:" "For the Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what ye ought to say."


I will say one more time, that to minister is a call of God, not a vocation.


Leviticus Chapter 8 Questions


1. Who was the priest of the family, before God established the Levitical priesthood?


2. How could a family buy back their first born son from God?


3. It is not in today's lesson, but what does silver symbolize?


4. Why did God choose the tribe of Levi to be the family who ministered in the sanctuary?


5. Who was chosen out of the family of Levi to be the high priest?


6. Who were to assist him in the sanctuary?


7. What type of instruction had Aaron and his sons received?


8. What lesson can ministers of our day receive from this?


9. What position was Moses filling before Aaron was ordained?


10. What was to be taken to the sanctuary with Aaron and his sons?


11. What lesson can we modern day ministers receive from Moses and Aaron preparing to bring the needed things to the sanctuary?


12. Where was the congregation to be gathered for the ordination?


13. Why was it necessary for the congregation to see this ordination?


14. It is wonderful to be a leader, but the people must be willing to ___________ before you can lead them.


15. Why did Moses tell the people, this is the thing which the LORD commanded to be done?


16. Why had the people asked Moses to speak to God for them?


17. What was the first thing Moses did to Aaron and his sons?


18. What can we relate this washing to?


19. Why was Jesus baptized?


20. What is the very first thing a person must do to come to God?


21. What does water baptism for a Christian symbolize?


22. What was the order Moses dressed him?


23. What did the Dove descending on Jesus at His baptism, symbolize?


24. What at Jesus' baptism showed that Jesus was ordained of the Father to minister?


25. What was the coat that was put on the priest symbolic of?


26. What was the priest's robe made of?


27. What does white linen mean?


28. What was the ephod similar to?


29. What was on the shoulder of the ephod?


30. What did this symbolize?


31. What does gold symbolize?


32. How was the ephod held together?


33. The strength of the high priest was in whom?


34. What was on the breastplate?


35. What was the shape of the breastplate?


36. What spiritual meaning can we see in the stones of the 12 tribes being on the breastplate?


37. What did the mounting of the stones in gold mean?


38. God spoke to the people through the ________ ___ _____ _______ _________.


39. What was the pocket called that went behind the breastplate?


40. A minister of God must be _________, it cannot be a ____________ with him.


41. What is one of the most important requirements in ministering?




Leviticus Chapter 8 Continued

Leviticus 8:8 "And he put the breastplate upon him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim."


The "Urim and the Thummim" are thought to have been carried in a pocket in the High-Priests ephod. It is uncertain exactly how they worked, but some scholars believe these two special stones were flat on one side and rounded on the other, and when they were cast to the ground, God would reveal an answer: either yes (perhaps both landing flat side down), or no (perhaps both landing rounded side down), or no answer at all (if they did not land on the same side).


A feature on the breastplate of the High-Priest by which God's people were given His decision on matters which required a decision (see note on Exodus 28:30).


In our study on Exodus, we went into what the Urim and Thummim meant, but it bears repeating here. The Urim means lights, and the Thummim means perfections. These symbolize complete truth. My own personal belief is that in this Urim and Thummim, there was a very precious diamond with the unspeakable name of God engraved on it. When the breastplate was tightened, the stone pressed into the heart of the high priest, and God spoke to the people through the heart of the high priest. A better way to say, in the breastplate, would be in the pouch behind the breastplate. The Urim and Thummim was not on the same side of the breastplate as the 12 stones of the tribes of Israel. The twelve stones were on the outside for all to see, the Urim and Thummim was on the underside. Jesus Christ is the perfect Light of the world. We can also see in this earthly high priest, a shadow of the eternal High Priest, Jesus Christ our LORD.


Leviticus 8:9 "And he put the mitre upon his head; also upon the mitre, [even] upon his forefront, did he put the golden plate, the holy crown; as the LORD commanded Moses."


Which was made of fine linen, and was a wrap of that of a considerable length about his head (Exodus 28:39).


"Also upon the mitre, even upon his forefront, did he put the golden plate": Which was put upon the forehead of the high priest. Reaching from ear to ear, and was fastened to the mitre with a blue lace. And had on it this inscription, "holiness to the Lord" (Exodus 28:36), and is here therefore called:


"The holy crown": Denoting both the sanctity and the dignity of the high priest. And typical of Christ, who is holiness itself. And to his people, and is now crowned with glory and honor, being a priest upon the throne. Hence the Jews speak of the crown of the law, and of the crown of the kingdom, and of the crown of the priesthood. And this, as all the rest, was done;


"As the Lord commanded Moses": All these were made according to the divine order, and were put on in the manner and form he directed him. Of the mystery of the mitre and the crown (see notes on Exodus 28:39; 28:36; 28:37).


Mitre comes from the word (mitsnepheth), and it means a tiara or an official turban. This mitre, along with the robe showed the authority of the high priest. The gold plate on the forehead of the high priest meant that the high priest was to keep God ever before him. It also meant that the mind of the high priest should be stayed on God. This gold on the front of the forehead symbolized the power and authority of God in the ministry of the high priest. In all of this, Moses keeps reminding them that God gave these instructions.


Ministers, we should not be wasting God's time and our time on finances, and government. That is someone else's concern. The minister is the spiritual leader of the congregation. The spiritual needs of the congregation should be our priority. This is a holy calling, as you can easily see from the garments of the high priest. When the high priest was ministering in the things of God, He was totally separated from worldly things.


Leviticus 8:10 "And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the tabernacle and all that [was] therein, and sanctified them."


Which Bezaleel had made, according to the directions which Moses had given him, and he had received from the Lord. This Moses brought with him to the door of the tabernacle, as he was ordered (Lev. 8:2). And now he took it and made use of it as follows:


"And anointed the tabernacle and all that was therein": The altar of incense, the candlestick, and table of showbread.


"And sanctified them": Separated and devoted them to sacred use and service.


The very first thing we must see here, is that this is not just any oil. This is special oil for the purpose of anointing. Let's look back in Exodus and see that this oil is holy ointment.


Exodus 30:23-28 "Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred [shekels], and of sweet cinnamon half so much, [even] two hundred and fifty [shekels], and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty [shekels]," "And of cassia five hundred [shekels], after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin:" "And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil." "And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of the congregation therewith, and the ark of the testimony," "And the table and all his vessels, and the candlestick and his vessels, and the altar of incense," "And the altar of burnt offering with all his vessels, and the laver and his foot."


We need to see in this that not only the building is to be anointed, but everything and everyone in it. The sanctuary, set aside for worshipping God then or now, should be kept holy. The oil ministers use in the church today to anoint people or the holy things of the sanctuary is pure olive oil, which symbolizes the Holy Spirit of God. We should not use just any oil, because the oil itself must be holy.


Leviticus 8:11 "And he sprinkled thereof upon the altar seven times, and anointed the altar and all his vessels, both the laver and his foot, to sanctify them."


The altar of burnt offering. The order for anointing it is given in (Exodus 30:28), but in that no directions are given for the manner of doing it by sprinkling. Nor the number of times it was to be sprinkled. Hence Jarchi confesses his ignorance, and says, "I know not how it was ordered about these sprinklings;" but no doubt Moses was instructed of God in what manner to anoint it, and how often. And the number seven may denote the perfect unction of it, and made it a fitter type of Christ, who received the unction of the Spirit without measure.


"And anointed the altar, and all its vessels": Pans, shovels, basins, flesh hooks, and fire pans.


"Both the laver and his foot": Which was for the priests to wash at. And very probably this was done before Moses brought Aaron and his sons there and washed them (Lev. 8:6). Since it seems most proper that it should be consecrated before used, as it follows:


"To sanctify them": Set them apart for sacred use.


We know that the sprinkling seven times, symbolizes that this made it spiritually complete. We have spoken before that to sanctify something means that it has been set aside for God's purpose. Things in the sanctuary then, or in our sanctuaries now, should not be used for other things. These things have been set aside for God's purpose. We must not mix the world in God's house. God's house is holy.


Leviticus 8:12 "And he poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron's head, and anointed him, to sanctify him."


"To sanctify him": This act was to ceremonially set Aaron apart from the congregation to be a priest unto God, and from the other priests to be High-Priest.


Notice here, that Aaron was set aside for God's work in this sanctifying. He was empowered by the Holy Spirit of God to minister in the anointing. The oil poured on Aaron's head was in such abundance that it ran down his face and even to the hem of his garment. This symbolizes his total dedication to God. You may say, how do you know this ran down to his hem? It was not sprinkled, it was poured. The word translated poured here, means overflowed, in some instances.


Leviticus 8:13 "And Moses brought Aaron's sons, and put coats upon them, and girded them with girdles, and put bonnets upon them; as the LORD commanded Moses."


His four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. He ordered and directed them to come there, or sent proper persons to fetch them. Or from one part of the court, where they were, he might accompany them there.


"And put coats upon them, and girded them with girdles": Which were made of fine linen (Exodus 39:27). And the coats being made long to reach down to the ankles, needed girdles, especially when in service, that they might perform it more expeditiously.


"And put bonnets on them": Which were made of fine linen also, and differed from the mitre of the high priest only in the manner of rolling up the linen.


"As the Lord commanded Moses": As all the above things were made, so they were all put on, according to the directions Moses received of the Lord, who was faithful in his house, with respect to everything he enjoined him (Heb. 3:2).


In the high priest Aaron, we were seeing a shadow of Jesus, the great High Priest. As in many of the types and shadows, we were also seeing the office of a pastor of a church. Now we will be looking at the sons of Aaron, who symbolize the Christians. The garment here, will be different. There will be no breastplate, or ouches of gold with the 12 tribes on the shoulder. These coats are made of white linen, the same as the garments we Christians will be wearing in heaven. These coats of linen symbolize the righteousness that the Christian takes on as a covering, after Jesus took our sin upon His body. The priests will not have the responsibility of carrying the congregation on their shoulders, or their heart. Christians do have on a garment of authority, but this authority is to use the name of the High Priest and minister in His name. Just as Aaron's son's authority is through Aaron the high priest, so the authority of the Christian is in the name of Jesus. We have power of attorney to use the name of Jesus, and Aaron's sons minister under the supervision of their father. The fact the girdle was on them, showed the presence of God. We see in the bonnet, which was white linen, the covering of pure thoughts. We also see the beauty of holiness in these bonnets. There was no gold on this bonnet, as there was under the mitre that Aaron wore.


Exodus 28:40 "And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for glory and for beauty."


There is really no need to add to this Scripture, it explains the bonnets. Let us look at two Scriptures about the Christian's covering for the head, since these priests symbolize the believers in Christ.


1 Thessalonians 5:8 "But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for a helmet, the hope of salvation."


Ephesians 6:17 "And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God:"


White linen symbolizes righteousness in Christ. This linen bonnet could easily be thought of as the helmet of salvation then.


To summarize this lesson, we must realize the significance of these priests and the high priest to our churches today. Remember that in this particular Bible study, we are looking at the spiritual message that is to be found in each of the verses. Go back through this lesson again, and see if we Christians and the pastors of our churches are living up to this high calling of God. If not, what are we going to do about it?


Leviticus Chapter 8 Continued Questions


1. What is this particular lesson about?


2. In what order was Aaron dressed?


3. What does Urim mean?


4. What does Thummim mean?


5. What do these two words symbolize, that can be summed up in one word?


6. What does the author believe was in the Urim and Thummim?


7. What does the author believe was engraved on it?


8. How did God speak to the people?


9. Who is the Light of the world?


10. Who is a shadow of the eternal High Priest Jesus Christ?


11. What was put on Aaron's head?


12. What was on Aaron's forehead?


13. What does mitre really mean?


14. The mitre, along with the robe of Aaron, showed what?


15. What 2 things did the gold plate on the forehead mean?


16. What warning to present day ministers can we see in the mitre and the gold on the forehead?


17. From the garments of the high priest, we see that the call of a minister to work for God is a _______ calling.


18. What did Moses anoint, besides Aaron?


19. Could Moses use any oil for this anointing? Explain


20. Why do Christian ministers today use pure olive oil to anoint with?


21. The sanctuary, then or now, must be kept _______.


22. How many times did Moses sprinkle the altar?


23. What does this number tell us?


24. What does the word sanctify mean?


25. How did Moses anoint Aaron?


26. What does the word that was translated here "poured" mean?


27. The oil going from the top of Aaron's head to the hem of his garment meant what?


28. What did Moses put on Aaron's sons?


29. How did the coat and other garments vary from Aaron's garments?


30. What was different about the bonnet Aaron's sons wore and the mitre Aaron wore?


31. In Aaron, what 2 shadows do we see?


32. In Aaron's sons who do we see a shadow of?


33. Who, besides Aaron and his sons, will wear white linen garments of righteousness?


34. How do the responsibilities of Aaron and his sons vary?


35. What authority do the Christians have?


36. What head covering are the Christians to put on?


37. What is the sword of the spirit?


38. What significance does this lesson hold for Christians and Christian leaders?


39. Are you as a person living up to the high calling of God?




Leviticus Chapter 8 Second Continued

Verses 14-17: (See notes on 4:3-12).


Leviticus 8:14 "And he brought the bullock for the sin offering: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the bullock for the sin offering."


To the tabernacle, into the court of it, to the altar of burnt offering there. That is, he caused it to be brought thither as he was ordered (Exodus 29:10).


"And Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the bullock for the sin offering": Their right hands, according to the Targum of Jonathan, which is not improbable, thereby as it were transferring their sins to it, and confessing them over it. Acknowledging their guilt, and that they deserved to die, as that creature would. Which was to be a vicarious sacrifice for sin, and whose blood was to purify and sanctify the altar, at which they, sinful men, were to serve.


Leviticus 8:15 " And he slew [it]; and Moses took the blood, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar round about with his finger, and purified the altar, and poured the blood at the bottom of the altar, and sanctified it, to make reconciliation upon it."


Not Aaron, nor any of his sons, who as yet were not fully consecrated and installed into their office. But Moses, as follows:


"And Moses took the blood": Which was received into a basin when the bullock was slain.


"And put it upon the horns of the altar round about with his finger": Upon the four horns of the altar, which were at the four corners of it. And dipping his finger into the blood, he besmeared the horns with it, and drew it about with his finger here and there. And so is said to be done round about the altar, as these horns were.


"And purified the altar": Or cleansed it. Not from moral guilt and pollution, which it was incapable of, but from all ceremonial pollution it might be supposed to have.


"And poured the blood at the bottom of the altar": The rest of the blood he did not use about the horns.


"And sanctified it": Separated it from common to sacred use.


"To make reconciliation upon it": That it might be fit to have sacrifices offered on it to make atonement and reconciliation for sins. For which reason, it was necessary it should itself be pure and holy, in such sense it was capable of being so.


It is the shed blood which reconciles to God. We went into great detail in an earlier lesson on the significance of these things. I will just touch on a few here, since it is repeating an earlier lesson. In that lesson, we learned that the laying of the hands on the head of the animal, was symbolically transferring sin to the animal. No forgiveness was possible without the shedding of blood, and this animal becomes the substitute for Aaron and his sons. I will remind you that horns symbolize power. This animal is not only taking care of the sins of Aaron and his sons, but the blood is cleansing the altar. Remember in a previous lesson, the blood at the foot of the altar, which was swallowed up by the earth, symbolized the blood of Jesus that was shed for all the earth. We mentioned in the last lesson that everything in the sanctuary, as well as the sanctuary itself, was set aside for God's purpose from this moment on, and would not be used for worldly events. Since this sanctuary symbolizes our church building today, this should tell us something.


Leviticus 8:16 "And he took all the fat that [was] upon the inwards, and the caul [above] the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and Moses burned [it] upon the altar."


Called the "omentum".


"And the caul above the liver": The lobe upon the liver, as the Septuagint; or "the caul" and "the liver", so says Jarchi. The liver separately, for he took a little of the liver with it, the caul.


"And the two kidneys, and their fat, and Moses burned it upon the altar": The fat of these several parts, which has been often observed was done. And in imitation of which, the same has been done by the Persians and their Magi, as related by Strabo and others. And by the Romans, to which Persius refers. And these several parts are generally covered with fat in fat creatures, and especially sheep, as Aristotle observes.


It is important to remember again, that these inward parts, symbolize the inward parts of Jesus. These elements make a sweet smelling savor to God when they are totally burned up. Jesus glorified the Father in His crucifixion. The flesh of Jesus was as a man, but inside He was Immanuel (God with us).


Leviticus 8:17 "But the bullock, and his hide, his flesh, and his dung, he burnt with fire without the camp; as the LORD commanded Moses."


Aben Ezra observes, that some say that he did this himself. And others, that it was done by orders, that is, he ordered others to do it, which seems probable enough (see note on 4:11).


"As the Lord commanded Moses (Exodus 29:14).


This symbolizes the flesh of Jesus, which became cursed for us, when He took the sin of the whole world upon His body. Just as Jesus was crucified outside the camp, this offering was totally burned up outside the camp. Jesus fulfilled every aspect of these Old Testament sacrifices and offerings. There are several things we must look at in all of this. Moses is still acting as high priest here. This flesh is not eaten, but burned. Aaron and his sons have not begun to minister in the sanctuary at this point. There would be no one to eat the meat. This blood offering was to purify, not only Aaron, but his sons and the altar. After this offering, Aaron will be ceremoniously clean.


Verses 18-21: (See notes on 1:3-17).


Leviticus 8:18 "And he brought the ram for the burnt offering: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the ram."


One of the two he was ordered to take (Lev. 8:2).


"And Aaron and his sons laid their hands on the head of the ram": As they had done before on the head of the bullock (see Lev. 8:14). Their right hands, as the Targum of Jonathan, and that at the same time.


Leviticus 8:19 "And he killed [it]; and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about."


That is, Moses killed the ram, as the Septuagint version expresses it.


"And Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about": As he did the blood of the bullock (Lev. 8:15).


After the sin offering, Aaron would be clothed with righteousness, like we are when we put our sin on Christ and receive His righteousness. Now after this burnt offering, Aaron will be holy in the sight of God. We dealt with all of this in the burnt offering in an earlier lesson. This brings peace and confidence to Aaron.


Leviticus 8:20 "And he cut the ram into pieces; and Moses burnt the head, and the pieces, and the fat."


Cut off its head and quartered it.


"And Moses burnt the head, and the pieces, and the fat": Even all of it, as the following verse shows.


Leviticus 8:21 "And he washed the inwards and the legs in water; and Moses burnt the whole ram upon the altar: it [was] a burnt sacrifice for a sweet savor, [and] an offering made by fire unto the LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses."


The one being taken out, the other cut off.


"And Moses burnt the whole ram upon the altar": It was a burnt sacrifice for a sweet savor, and an offering made by fire unto the Lord. As the Lord commanded Moses (see Exodus 29:18).


We went into the washing of the inward parts and the legs in another lesson, but we will just touch on it here. God will not accept an unclean offering. The most important part of our coming to the LORD, is that we are cleansed inside. We have talked before about how God will not settle for anything less than a pure clean heart. Many people profess to be followers of God, and from the outside looking on they are, but God looks at the heart of man. God wants us to be clean from the inside out.


Leviticus 8:22 "And he brought the other ram, the ram of consecration: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the ram."


Or "filling", or "fullness's". Because, as Jarchi says, these filled and perfected the priests in their priesthood. This was the finishing and consummation of their consecration. What is said in this and the three following verses (Lev. 8:23), is the same as is ordered (Exodus 29:19), and needs no further explanation (see notes on Exodus 29:19; 29:20; 29:21; 29:22).


This second ram, is actually a peace offering. When a ram is offered for a peace offering, it is called the ram of consecration.


Verses 23-24: "Right ear ... right hand ... right foot": Using a part to represent the whole, Aaron and his sons were consecrated to listen to God's holy Word, to carry out his holy assignments, and to live holy lives.


Leviticus 8:23 "And he slew [it]; and Moses took of the blood of it, and put [it] upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot."


Before casting forth the blood round the altar in the usual manner, Moses took a portion of the blood and put some of it on the right extremities of each of the priests. This, being performed with the blood of the peace-offering, has been supposed to figure the readiness of the priest who is at peace with Yahweh to hear with the ear and obey the divine word. To perform with the hand the sacred duties of his office. And to walk with the feet in the way of holiness.


This probably seems silly to some, but I personally believe it is one of the most vivid instructions in the Bible for people who are called of God to minister. Remember, from the statement above, that this is the offering of consecration to God. Notice the three things that were consecrated to God. Always, the right side was the spiritual blessing. The right ear being consecrated to the LORD would mean that the priest being consecrated would listen to clean things. His hearing would be cleansed by the blood. The thumb of his right hand being anointed with the blood, would indicate that everything he put his hand to do would be clean through the blood. Then this priests work for the LORD would be a pure, holy work. This priest should not do anything except God's work. We see in this great toe of the right foot of this priest being anointed, that the walk of the priest anointed must be holy. This should be a good example for all those who are called to minister for God. We must not stay and listen to unholy conversation, everything we do should be a godly task, and our walk should be holy as well. Have we consecrated ourselves to this extent?


Leviticus 8:24 "And he brought Aaron's sons, and Moses put of the blood upon the tip of their right ear, and upon the thumbs of their right hands, and upon the great toes of their right feet: and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about."


Having performed these symbolical acts upon the high priest, Moses now repeats the same in the case of the four ordinary priests. The right members were chosen for these symbolical acts because they are represented as the strongest, and are therefore most able to execute the will of God (see also Exodus 29:20). The cured leper had the same parts of the body touched with the blood of the trespass offering (see Lev. 14:14-17).


The thing that we must see in this is that the priests, sons of Aaron, also were anointed with the blood of consecration on their right ear, the thumb of their right hand, and their great toe of their right foot. The sons of Aaron are types of the believers in Christ. We must see in this that all Christian's walk, work, and hearing must be stayed on God. I have said so many times in these lessons, that Christianity is a daily walk. If we are true Christians, our desire will be to be Christlike. When you are saved, you become a brand new person in Christ. Old habits and sins have passed away.


Leviticus 8:25 "And he took the fat, and the rump, and all the fat that [was] upon the inwards, and the caul [above] the liver, and the two kidneys, and their fat, and the right shoulder:"


After the sin offering and burnt offering had been presented on their behalf, this was their peace offering. By which they declared the pleasure which they felt in entering upon the service of God and being brought into close communion with Him as the ministers of His sanctuary. Together with their confident reliance on His grace to help them in all their sacred duties.


This says to me that when I became a Christian, I was not just clean on the outside, but everything within me was cleansed also. I think these following Scriptures say it all.


Galatians 2:20 "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me."


2 Corinthians 5:17 "Therefore if any man [be] in Christ, [he is] a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new."


A person who is saved in Jesus Christ is a separated person consecrated to the life Christ desires for them. You cannot be a true Christian and be involved in worldly things.


Leviticus 8:26 "And out of the basket of unleavened bread, that [was] before the LORD, he took one unleavened cake, and a cake of oiled bread, and one wafer, and put [them] on the fat, and upon the right shoulder:"


Moses was ordered to take (Lev. 8:2).


"That was before the Lord": Being brought to the tabernacle, where now the Lord had taken up his residence.


"He took one unleavened cake": Which had no oil in it or upon it.


"And a cake of oiled bread": Which was mixed and tempered with oil.


"And one wafer": Which was anointed with oil.


"And put them upon the fat, and upon the right shoulder": Of the ram of consecration, which he took from it, and laid the cakes uppermost upon them.


Leviticus 8:27 "And he put all upon Aaron's hands, and upon his sons' hands, and waved them [for] a wave offering before the LORD."


The fat and the right shoulder, with the cakes upon them.


"And waved them for a wave offering before the Lord" (see notes on Exodus 29:24).


Leviticus 8:28 "And Moses took them from off their hands, and burnt [them] on the altar upon the burnt offering: they [were] consecrations for a sweet savor: it [is] an offering made by fire unto the LORD."


After they had been waved before the Lord.


"And burnt them upon the altar, upon the burnt offering": Of the other ram; or after that burnt offering, as Jarchi. Who observes, that we do not find that the shoulder of peace offerings was offered in any place but this, it belonged to the priest. But this being at the consecration of the priests, it was offered to the Lord by Moses, to whom it seems to have belonged, as the breast also. But that was not burnt, but eaten. And the same writer affirms, that Moses ministered all the seven days of the consecration in a white shirt, or surplice. And that he might wear a linen coat, as priests did, is not improbable, since he now officiated as one.


"They were consecrated for a sweet savor": Acceptable to the Lord, and so the priests, Aaron and his sons likewise, on whose account they were made.


"It is an offering made by fire unto the Lord": The fat, the shoulder, and the cakes.


We know that Jesus is the Bread. We see that Aaron and his sons lifted the bread up to heaven and waved this offering before the Lord. The following Scriptures show that the disciples and we who claim to be believers have handled the Word of God.


1 John 1:1-3 "That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of the Word of life;" "(For the life was manifested, and we have seen [it], and bear witness, and shew unto you that eternal life, which was with the Father, and was manifested unto us;)" "That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us: and truly our fellowship [is] with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ."


Leviticus Chapter 8 Second Continued Questions


1. Who laid their hands on the offering in verse 14?


2. Where did Moses put the blood in verse 15?


3. What reconciles us to God?


4. What did the laying of the hands on the animal symbolize?


5. What is this animal for Aaron and his sons?


6. What did the blood being poured at the foot of the altar symbolize?


7. What in the sanctuary, was set aside for God's purpose?


8. What does the sanctuary symbolize?


9. What lesson can we learn from this?


10. What did Moses do with the fat from this bullock?


11. Who did Jesus glorify in His crucifixion?


12. The flesh of Jesus was as ______, but the inside of the flesh was ______________.


13. What does Immanuel mean?


14. What of the bullock, was burned without the camp?


15. The flesh of Jesus became ___________ when it took our sin upon it?


16. Who is Moses acting as, in these ceremonies?


17. Why do Aaron and his sons not eat this flesh?


18. The first ram was brought for what kind of offering?


19. After the sin offering, Aaron would be clothed with what?


20. What does the washing of these inward parts show us?


21. What kind of heart does God want His followers to have?


22. The second ram brought was called the ram of _________________.


23. What is this second ram offering really?


24. What three parts of Aaron's body did Moses put the blood on?


25. Why was this the right side and not the left?


26. What did putting the blood on the right ear symbolize?


27. What did putting the blood on the thumb of the right hand symbolize?


28. What did the putting blood on the great toe of the right foot symbolize?


29. Were Aaron's sons touched with the blood on their right ear, right big toe and on the thumb of their right hand?


30. What message is in this for we Christians.


31. Christianity is a daily _______.


32. What does Galatians 2:20 say about the life of a Christian?


33. If any man be in Christ, he is a _____ ____________.


34. If you are involved in worldly things, you cannot be a ______________.


35. Who is the Bread?


36. What does the Scripture mean by handling the Word of God?


37. Where do we find the Scriptures that tell us the answer to 36?




Leviticus Chapter 8 Third Continued

Leviticus 8:29 "And Moses took the breast, and waved it [for] a wave offering before the LORD: [for] of the ram of consecration it was Moses' part; as the LORD commanded Moses."


Of the ram of consecration.


"And waved it for a wave offering before the Lord": This Moses seems to have waved with his own hands, and not upon the hands of Aaron and his sons. Putting his under them, as in the wave offering of the fat, shoulder, and cakes, and for which the following words seem to give a reason (see note on 7:30-32).


"For of the ram of consecration it was Moses's part": The breast of it was his.


"As the Lord commanded Moses (see Exodus 29:26).


This is to be eaten of Moses, after it was waved before the LORD. You remember that Moses was fulfilling the office of high priest in these ceremonies, so he was to eat this breast that had been waved before the LORD.


Leviticus 8:30 "And Moses took of the anointing oil, and of the blood which [was] upon the altar, and sprinkled [it] upon Aaron, [and] upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon his sons' garments with him; and sanctified Aaron, [and] his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with him."


Which was sprinkled upon the altar round about (Lev. 8:24). And these two seem to be mixed together, since it follows.


"And sprinkled it upon Aaron": etc. (see notes on Exodus 29:21).


As we have said in these lessons before, Aaron was a shadow not only of the ministers in the church, but his primary shadow was of Christ the great High Priest. The main difference shown in this particular verse is that Aaron's anointing was of this earth and was a partial anointing. Jesus was the fullness of the godhead bodily, and was not High Priest for a season, as Aaron was, but the High Priest forever. The priesthood of Jesus is not limited to this earth, but is for heaven as well.


Leviticus 8:31 "And Moses said unto Aaron and to his sons, Boil the flesh [at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and there eat it with the bread that [is] in the basket of consecrations, as I commanded, saying, Aaron and his sons shall eat it."


After he had offered the bullock, the two rams, and cakes of unleavened bread for the consecration of them.


"Boil the flesh at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation": The remainder of the flesh of the ram of consecration, which was all but the fat, the shoulder, and the breast.


"And there eat it with the bread that is in the basket of consecration": What was left of that, there being one cake of a sort taken out of it and burnt.


"As I commanded, saying, Aaron and his sons shall eat it" (see Exodus 29:32).


Remember again, that this second ram was the ram of consecration. It was really the peace offering. We must not lose sight of the fact that these sons of Aaron are shadows, or representatives, of all Christians. We also, noted that this flesh of the ram and the bread are symbolic of the flesh of Jesus.


John 6:53 "Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you."


Here again, we see that not only the ministers are to take of the Bread of Jesus, but all believers in Christ are to take of it as well.


Leviticus 8:32 "And that which remaineth of the flesh and of the bread shall ye burn with fire."


Until the next morning, which could not be eaten by Aaron and his sons.


"Shall ye burn with fire": That it might not be corrupted, nor put to common nor superstitious uses.


This is not to be mishandled, since it represents the flesh of Jesus. Ministers can take note of this as well. When we put out the Bread or the Fruit of the vine for communion, we are not to put what is left over back for another time. What has touched the serving trays must be consumed by the minister and the person who prepared it, or burned in the fire.


Verses 33-36: To emphasize the importance of following God's law, Aaron and his sons remained inside "the door of the tabernacle of the congregation" for the seven days of consecration. Their failure to obey the law would lead to death.


Leviticus 8:33 "And ye shall not go out of the door of the tabernacle of the congregation [in] seven days, until the days of your consecration be at an end: for seven days shall he consecrate you."


Which was the time of their consecration, so long it lasted. And they had provision enough every day from the ram of consecration, whose flesh they were to boil and eat. The Jewish writers are puzzled where they should ease nature, since the place was holy. But the orders are not to be considered as so strict but that they might go in and out, though they were not to stay long, or to attend to any other business. And it was always necessary there should be some upon the spot, keeping the Lord's charge in their turns. And it was always requisite that they should also sleep alternately. For it cannot be thought that they should be all this time without rest, any more than without food.


"Until the days of your consecration be at an end": Which were to continue so long.


"For seven days shall he consecrate you": That is, Moses, who here speaks of himself in the third person, as appears from (Exodus 29:35). Aben Ezra observes, that the word "end" is wanting, and that the sense is, at the end of seven days he shall consecrate you, finish their consecration. All the seven days he was doing it, and at the end of the seventh concluded it.


This seven day period shows that his dedication to the service of the sanctuary was complete. This also shows total separation from the world. Seven as you remember, means spiritually complete.


Leviticus 8:34 "As he hath done this day, [so] the LORD hath commanded to do, to make an atonement for you."


The same were to be repeated every day until the seven days were ended. So Jarchi and Aben Ezra.


"To make an atonement for you, of the business of the day of atonement": And say, that it may be learned from hence that the high priest was obliged to be separate (from his own house and family), seven days before that. And so, the priest that burned the red heifer; and the same is observed by other Jewish writers. But this refers to neither of these cases, but to the present consecration of Aaron and his sons. And the making atonement by sacrifice for them, and the sanctification of them to minister in the priest's office.


The instructions that God had given Moses, have been carried out to the letter. This is what we must remember as well. Do it God's way. All the schemes we figure up in our mind to help our ministry will not help. Do it God's way, and it cannot fail. His way is perfect.


Leviticus 8:35 "Therefore shall ye abide [at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation day and night seven days, and keep the charge of the LORD, that ye die not: for so I am commanded."


"Keep the charge of the LORD": The commandment of God ordered Aaron and his sons to do exactly as the Lord had spoken through Moses. Disobedience would meet with death.


Abide means to continually stay. We can see in the position at the door of the sanctuary, the fact that the ministers of the Word of God are not in heaven (holy of holies). Neither are they in the world (outside the gate of the tabernacle). The minister, (who Aaron represents), and the Christians, (who Aaron's sons represent), are actually on their way to heaven, but not there yet. All we who profess to be Christians, may be in the world, but we are not of this world. Our ultimate destination is heaven.


1 John 2:15-17 "Love not the world, neither the things [that are] in the world. If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him." "For all that [is] in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world." "And the world passeth away, and the lust thereof: but he that doeth the will of God abideth for ever."


This tells the position of the minister and the believers in Christ. The minister's duty is to guard the entrance of the sanctuary. The work of the LORD is not a part time job. If you are acceptable to God, you must be a Christian 24 hours a day, seven days a week. God will not settle for less. In the next few verses, Christians are instructed on how to watch while they are still on earth.


1 Thessalonians 5:4-8 "But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief." "Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness." "Therefore let us not sleep, as [do] others; but let us watch and be sober." "For they that sleep sleep in the night; and they that be drunken are drunken in the night." "But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for a helmet, the hope of salvation."


To me, one of the saddest parables in the Bible, is the parable of the 10 virgins. Spiritual virgins are all believers in Christ. This tells me that all ten of the virgins were believers. Five were ready, and five were not, when the call came. I believe this shows us the condition of Christians today. It doesn't matter whether they are the head of a church, or just a member. Remember with me one more time, that Aaron represents the leaders of the church and his sons represent the believing congregation. We read in the last Scripture above from Leviticus, "Abide, that ye die not. What could cause them to die? They could die if they step back into the world or let the world come in at the door. I will not belabor this, but we see the world creeping into the church today. We see many of our leaders going in and out to the world, and then coming back into the church. The warning if we do that, is DEATH. Will you be one of the five virgins that has watched and kept your lamp burning, or will you be one of the five who tired waiting for the LORD and let your lamp burn out?


Leviticus 8:36 "So Aaron and his sons did all things which the LORD commanded by the hand of Moses."


They submitted to have them done to them, and for them, what was done on the first day of their consecration, all the rest of the days. And they kept within the tabernacle all that time as was enjoined them.


To obey is better than sacrifice.


1 Samuel 15:22 "And Samuel said, Hath the LORD [as great] delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey [is] better than sacrifice, [and] to hearken than the fat of rams."


God is sending a warning to our churches and their people today in these verses here in Leviticus. I can just hear some of you saying how ridiculous to study the Old Testament to know how to live today. What do the Scriptures themselves say about this?


1 Corinthians 10:11 "Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come."


I said at the beginning of these lessons in Leviticus, it would be of no use at all to study this book of the Old Testament, if we could not see instructions for living pleasing lives before God today. Chapter 8 has taught us what our churches, and all who believe in the LORD should do today.


Leviticus Chapter 8 Third Continued Questions


1. Leviticus chapter 8 verse 29 says that what part of the offering was for Moses?


2. What was to be done with this breast of the animal, before it was given to Moses?


3. What 2 things did Moses sprinkle on Aaron and Aaron's sons?


4. What else did Moses sprinkle besides Aaron and his sons?


5. What 2 was Aaron a type and shadow of?


6. Who were Aaron's sons' representative of?


7. What was the main difference between Aaron's anointing and Jesus' anointing?


8. What were Aaron's sons to do, before they ate the flesh?


9. What was to be eaten with the flesh?


10. What do both the flesh and the Bread represent?


11. The second ram offered was a ram of ________________.


12. What type offering was this really?


13. In John 6:53, what 2 things must you do to have life?


14. Who is communion for?


15. What was to be done with any flesh left over?


16. What lesson can ministers get from this?


17. How long are Aaron and his sons to stay at the door of the tabernacle?


18. What does this period of time tell us about this consecration?


19. What does abide mean?


20. What 2 places do we see from verse 35 that ministers are not?


21. What in the tabernacle represents heaven?


22. Where pertaining to the tabernacle represents the world?


23. Christians are ____ the world, but not ____ the world.


24. In 1 John 2:15, we are warned not to love what?


25. If you do love this forbidden place, what is not in you?


26. What 3 things are specifically mentioned that are bad in the world?


27. How many hours are all believers to be stayed upon God?


28. In 1 Thessalonians Christians are called children of the ________.


29. We Christians are not to sleep, but do what 2 things?


30. What is the breastplate Christians should put on?


31. What is the helmet we should wear?


32. What does the author believe is one of the saddest parables in the Bible?


33. In the parable, who are the virgins?


34. What does this tell us about our present church?


35. What does the Scripture tell us that these happenings are for those upon whom the end of the world are come?


36. Which of the ten virgins do you fall into?


37. Why should believers in Christ study the Old Testament?





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Leviticus 9



Leviticus Chapter 9

Verses 1-24: This chapter relates the inauguration of the tabernacle service. Aaron first offered a "young calf for a sin offering" and "a ram for a burnt offering" for himself. He had already been washed, clothed, and anointed for service. Thus, it might seem surprising that he is so soon to offer up a sin offering. Yet this is a reminder of our need of daily cleansing from sin due to its defilement. The "young calf" was unique; for no other person at any time was such a sacrifice needed. It is possible that the connection is with his preparing a golden calf (in Exodus chapter 32). The burnt offering symbolized his need for consecration wholly to God. For the people in addition to a sin offering and a burnt offering, there were to be presented a "meat" [grain] "offering" and "a sacrifice of peace offerings". The "grain offering" symbolized the consecration to God of the fruit of one's labor. It indicated that all of their toil or activities should be dedicated to God. And the "peace offerings" conveyed the concept of fellowship and communion with God.


Leviticus 9:1 " And it came to pass on the eighth day, [that] Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel;"


When the seven days of consecration were ended, as Ben Gersom. The day following them, so soon was Aaron called to the execution of his office. And so, both the Targum of Jonathan and Jarchi make it to be the eighth day of the consecration. Or the day after the anointing of Aaron and his sons, and which they both say was the beginning. Or first day of Nisan, the day the tabernacle was erected by Moses. But that seems to have been set up before the consecration. Rather this was, as Aben Ezra says, the eighth day of the month Nisan or March, and was the eighth day of the consecration. Which began at the first day, on which day the tabernacle was set up (Exodus 40:2).


"That Moses, called Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel": Aaron and his sons to enter upon their office, by offering sacrifices for themselves, and for the people, and the elders to be witnesses thereof.


The number 8, throughout the Bible, means new beginnings. Just as a son was circumcised on the eighth day of life, we find that Aaron was completely consecrated for the priesthood on the 8th day. Aaron was in his days of consecration 7 days and now on the eighth day, he will take on the office of high priest. From the eighth day on, Aaron will be carrying on the office of high priest in the tabernacle. At first, Moses will still be advising Aaron of God's will, but Aaron will be handling the offerings as high priest. The elders of Israel were called, so they would realize it was God's will for Aaron and his sons to take care of the people's needs toward God in the tabernacle. Jesus rose from the dead on the first day of the week. Grace is a new beginning in Christ. An Old Testament account which strongly speaks of new beginnings, is the account of Noah, his wife, his 3 sons, and their wives. These 8 would start over again to populate the earth. I think all of this leaves no doubt that 8 means new beginnings.


Leviticus 9:2 "And he said unto Aaron, Take thee a young calf for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering, without blemish, and offer [them] before the LORD."


In the presence of the people of Israel.


"Take thee a young calf for a sin offering": One not exceeding a year old (as in Lev. 9:3). But this was not for the sin of making the golden calf only, to which the Jewish writers restrain it. But for all other sins of his, which it was necessary should be expiated before he offered sacrifices for the sins of others.


"And a ram for a burnt offering": Being a strong and innocent creature, was a proper emblem of Christ, the Lamb of God that takes away, by his sacrifice, the sins of men.


"Without blemish": This character belongs, as Aben Ezra observes, both to the calf and ram, which were both to be without spot. And so, proper types of Christ the Lamb without spot and blemish, free both from original and actual sin.


"And offer them before the Lord": On the altar of burnt offering, which stood in the court of the tabernacle near where Jehovah was. To whom every sacrifice for sin was to be offered, being committed against him, and whose justice must be satisfied for it.


The biggest difference here, is that Aaron will be the one to offer the animal, not Moses. Because Aaron is not fully trained in all of this, Moses will direct the next several offerings. We notice in this the guiding hand of Moses, but the actual killing and offering is done by Aaron.


Leviticus 9:3 "And unto the children of Israel thou shalt speak, saying, Take ye a kid of the goats for a sin offering; and a calf and a lamb, [both] of the first year, without blemish, for a burnt offering;"


That is, Aaron should speak to them, for being now high priest, Moses had no more to do with the sacrifices of the people. But it was incumbent on Aaron to call upon them to bring them to him such as the Lord by this law required of them.


"Saying, take ye a kid of the goats for a sin offering": This creature fitly represented Christ as made sin, and an offering for sin, instead of his people.


"And a calf, and a lamb": Both of them, as before observed, were proper emblems of Christ in his strength and innocence. Sometimes called the fatted calf, and frequently the Lamb of God (Luke 15:23; John 1:29).


"Both of the first year, without blemish, for a burnt offering": Denoting the tenderness of Christ, his spotless purity, and painful sufferings.


Leviticus 9:4 "Also a bullock and a ram for peace offerings, to sacrifice before the LORD; and a meat offering mingled with oil: for today the LORD will appear unto you."


An offering being made for the atonement of sin, and the gift of a whole burnt offering accepted by the Lord upon that. Peace offerings were to be sacrificed thereupon. One part of which belonged to the Lord, as the fat and the blood; another part to the priest, as the shoulder and the breast. And the rest to the owners to make a feast with, expressive of the peace and joy which arise from the expiation and atonement of sin. By the great sacrifice of Christ, in commemoration of which a feast is kept by the Lord's people.


"And a meat offering mingled with oil": With oil olive; each of these offerings are treated of in the preceding chapters, where an account is given of them, and the mystery of them explained.


"For today the Lord will appear unto you": Or "And today", as in (Lev. 9:6) so Noldius. For this is not observed as a reason why the sacrifices were to be offered, but as a promise of the divine appearance, as an encouragement thereunto. And may have special respect to some visible splendor and luster of the divine glory more than ordinary. And particularly to the fire that should come out from before the Lord, and consume the sacrifice (Lev. 9:24). And so, Ben Gersom interprets it. And this being on the eighth day of the consecration of the priests, may lead our thoughts to the day when our great High Priest rose from the dead, the day after the seventh. Or the Jewish Sabbath, even on the eighth day, or first day of the week, on which he made frequent appearances to his disciples (see Mark 16:9).


This coming and bringing these offerings to the door of the tabernacle by the people, is saying they have accepted Aaron as the high priest. Up until this time, you remember, they would only listen to Moses. You remember from previous lessons, that the high priest was to offer for himself first, so that God would allow him to offer for the people. The high priest's sins must be offered for, before he would be worthy to offer for the people. Ministers must be clean in the sight of God, before they can minister the things of God to the people. In some churches in recent days, we have seen ministers with sins in their lives trying to minister to the people. God calls this the blind leading the blind. Let us read the reference Scripture and see what happens when the blind lead the blind.


Matthew 15:14 "Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch."


We will not get back into the meaning of each of these offerings here, as we have thoroughly covered them in a previous lesson. I believe in the statement (I will appear before you), has to do with God wanting us to seek contact with Him. The Scripture says where 2 or 3 gather in my name, there am I in the midst of them.


Matthew 18:20 "For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them."


Leviticus 9:5 "And they brought [that] which Moses commanded before the tabernacle of the congregation: and all the congregation drew near and stood before the LORD."


That is, Aaron and his sons, and all the children of Israel, as the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it. All the above sacrifices they brought into the court of the tabernacle to be offered up.


"And all the congregation drew near, and stood before the Lord": That is, the elders of Israel, who were called together (Lev. 9:1). The heads of the tribes who represented the people. As many as well could be admitted into the court no doubt was to be spectators of Aaron and his sons officiating first in their new office. And to see their own sacrifices offered. And they stood over against where was the symbol of the divine Presence. And the Targum of Jonathan says, they stood with a perfect heart. And no doubt but they were heartily sincere and upright in their sacrifices, as they had been in their donations toward the building the tabernacle, and providing things belonging to it. And they stood with all humility, reverence, and devotion.


In our society today, we hear people (who claim to be Christians), saying that they do not need to go to church. This is a trick of the devil. The Scriptures tell us to gather in the LORD's name.


Hebrews 10:25 "Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some [is]; but exhorting [one another]: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching."


We must all stand before the LORD on judgement day. It would be much better, if we stand before Him now, so that He will claim us as His own then. We see in the Scripture above that not just a few came, but the entire congregation.


Habakkuk 2:20 "But the LORD [is] in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him."


Leviticus 9:6 "And Moses said, This [is] the thing which the LORD commanded that ye should do: and the glory of the LORD shall appear unto you."


Namely, what they had done, bring the creatures and things for sacrifice they had.


"And the glory of the Lord shall appear unto you": Either Christ, the brightness of his Father's glory, in a human form, as a presage of his future incarnation, as he frequently did. Or some more than ordinary refulgence of glory breaking out of the Holy of Holies. Where God had now taken up his dwelling between the cherubim. Or, as Aben Ezra explains it, the fire that should go out from him, and consume the sacrifice. Which would be a demonstration of his presence with them, and of his acceptance of the sacrifice.


We sing a chorus at our church which says (I want to see Jesus). How can we see God?


Matthew 5:8 "Blessed [are] the pure in heart: for they shall see God."


Glory in the verse above, means splendor. This will perhaps, be the Shekinah glory of God. When we appear before the LORD, we must be pure in our heart. Even though we Christians are forgiven, we should still have a repentant heart.


Leviticus 9:7 "And Moses said unto Aaron, Go unto the altar, and offer thy sin offering, and thy burnt offering, and make an atonement for thyself, and for the people: and offer the offering of the people, and make an atonement for them; as the LORD commanded."


This is only observed to show, that as Aaron did not take upon him this office of himself. But was called unto it, and invested with it, by the appointment of God. So, neither did he enter upon it but through the call of God by Moses, in the sight of the congregation.


"Go unto the altar, and offer thy sin offering, and thy burnt offering": The young calf and ram.


"And make an atonement for thyself and for the people": First for himself, and then for the people. For, as Aben Ezra says, a man cannot atone for another until he is pure from all sin. Which is a character only to be found in Christ, our great High Priest. And so, a proper person to atone for and take away the sins of others. Hence the priests under the law, with their sacrifices, could never take away sin really, only typically. And this shows the imperfection of the Levitical priesthood, that the priests of that order were obliged to offer first for their own sins. This our high priest, of another order, needed not to do (see Heb. 7:27).


"And offer the offering of the people, and make atonement for them": Typical of the true and full atonement made by Christ, when he offered himself without spot to God.


"As the Lord commanded": Aaron to do, and as he commanded Christ, his Son and our surety. The antitype of Aaron (John 10:18).


We went into great detail in the first few lessons in Leviticus about how these offerings opened the way to the Father. If you will, these sacrifices and offerings reconciled them to God. Jesus, who is our sacrifice and offering, opened the way to the Father for us. The curtain to the holy of holies tore from the top to the bottom when Jesus' body died on the cross. This tearing of the curtain was not of man's doing. It was opened by Jesus for all who will believe.


Matthew 27:51 "And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent;"


Atonement, above, means to cover or cancel. In the case of the offerings Aaron made, it covered; in the case where Jesus offered Himself, it cancelled the sin.


Leviticus 9:8 "Aaron therefore went unto the altar, and slew the calf of the sin offering, which [was] for himself."


Of burnt offering, freely and cheerfully, at the direction and introduction of Moses. Who acted in this affair in the name of the Lord.


"And slew the calf of the sin offering, which was for himself": Which was to be offered first, as it was proper it should, that, atonement being made for his sins, his after burnt offering might be accepted with God. And he be fit to offer the sacrifices of the people. The calf he slew on the north side of the altar, where all the sin offerings and burnt offerings were slain (see Lev. 1:11).


We see from this that Aaron gave his offering first, so that he would be worthy of making the other offerings for the people.


Leviticus 9:9 "And the sons of Aaron brought the blood unto him: and he dipped his finger in the blood, and put [it] upon the horns of the altar, and poured out the blood at the bottom of the altar:"


The blood of the calf of the sin offering, which they had received in a basin when it was slain.


"And he dipped his finger in the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar. The four horns of it, as Moses had done at his consecration, which was an example to him (Lev. 8:15). This was typical of the blood of Christ, to which persons may have recourse from the four quarters of the world for atonement and pardon.


"And poured out the blood at the bottom of the altar": What remained after he had put what was proper on the horns of it.


The only thing we need to remember here, is that the horns show power or strength. The strength lies in the blood of Jesus.


Leviticus 9:10 "But the fat, and the kidneys, and the caul above the liver of the sin offering, he burnt upon the altar; as the LORD commanded Moses."


The Septuagint version is, "he offered them".


"As the Lord commanded Moses (see Lev. 4:8).


We remember from previous lessons that the fat, blood, and inward parts all belong to God. They are burned as a sweet savor to God.


Leviticus 9:11 "And the flesh and the hide he burnt with fire without the camp."


With common fire, for the fire from the Lord came only upon the altar. Which perhaps may be the reason of this expression being used when anything was burnt without the camp, and not on the altar (see Exodus 29:14). Jarchi observes, that we do not find a sin offering burnt without the camp but this. Which is a great mistake (see Lev. 4:11).


The one important thing to remember here is that this flesh is symbolic of Jesus body which was offered outside the city wall.


Leviticus 9:12 "And he slew the burnt offering; and Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood, which he sprinkled round about upon the altar."


The ram, which was for himself also. This he slew at the north side of the altar (Lev. 1:11).


"And Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood": Which they had received into a basin, when it was slain.


"Which he sprinkled round about upon the altar": As he had seen Moses do before him (Lev. 8:19).


We dealt with these offerings in great detail in the first few lessons of this study. If you cannot remember the significance, go back and review those lessons. Aaron, even though he was to be high priest, had sinned and needed forgiveness, just as his sons did, and just as the congregation did. Aaron is a shadow of the great High Priest, Jesus Christ our Savior. The difference in Aaron and the person of Jesus which he shadowed, was that Jesus had no sin to be forgiven for.


Leviticus 9:13 "And they presented the burnt offering unto him, with the pieces thereof, and the head: and he burnt [them] upon the altar."


After it was cut in pieces, as the ram of the burnt offering was by Moses (Lev. 8:20). And so it was done to this, as appears by what follows.


"With the pieces thereof, and the head, and he burnt them upon the altar": The Septuagint version is, "he put them on the altar".


Leviticus 9:14 "And he did wash the inwards and the legs, and burnt [them] upon the burnt offering on the altar."


As Moses also had done (Lev. 8:21).


"And burnt them upon the burnt offering on the altar": Upon the pieces, and the head, before mentioned. Said to be burnt, or "after" the burnt offering, after they were burnt. The Septuagint version is as before.


I would just like to bring one thing to your remembrance here. The washing was because God would not accept an unclean offering. Aaron did as he had been instructed.


Leviticus Chapter 9 Questions


1. On what day did Moses go back and call Aaron?


2. What is the Biblical meaning of the number 8?


3. What day was Aaron's consecration into the priesthood complete?


4. What position in the priesthood would Aaron hold?


5. Why were the elders called to the tabernacle?


6. What day of the week did Jesus rise from the grave?


7. Grace is ___ _____ _______________ in Christ.


8. What Old Testament account speaks of new beginnings?


9. In Leviticus 9:2, what were the offerings Aaron was to make?


10. When does Aaron actually begin to do the offerings?


11. What wonderful thing had God promised the people after they made these offerings to Him?


12. What are the people saying they have accepted in bringing the offerings to the tabernacle?


13. Who had the people been used to speaking to God for them up until Aaron was named as high priest?


14. What do the Scriptures call ministers with sins trying to minister to their congregation?


15. What happens when the blind lead the blind?


16. What is intended by God saying "I will appear before you"?


17. Where do we find the Scripture that says where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them?


18. Where are we told in the Scriptures to gather in His name?


19. How can we see God?


20. Even though we Christians are forgiven, we should have a ______________ heart.


21. Who is directing Aaron in what he should do?


22. What reconciled the people of the Old Testament to God?


23. Who tore the curtain in the temple from the top down?


24. What 2 things does atonement mean?


25. Whose offering did Aaron make first?


26. What do the horns of the altar symbolize?


27. What 3 things of the animals always belonged to God?


28. Why was the flesh of this animal burned outside the camp?


29. What was the major difference in Aaron the high priest and Jesus the High Priest?


30. Why were the inwards washed before they were offered?




Leviticus Chapter 9 Continued

Leviticus 9:15 "And he brought the people's offering, and took the goat, which [was] the sin offering for the people, and slew it, and offered it for sin, as the first."


To the altar, having offered his own first.


"And took the goat, which was the sin offering for the people, and slew it": Where he had slain his own.


"And offered it for sin, as the first": The first offering he offered for himself, which was of the same sort.


In this lesson, I will not get into every little detail about what each item symbolizes. We dealt with those things in a previous lesson. I will however, remind all of us about some of the important differences in each offering. The most important thing to remember here, is that the offering for the entire congregation was the same as for the priest. This again, indicates that the priest will pay a higher price for his sins, because he sinned in knowledge.


Leviticus 9:16 "And he brought the burnt offering, and offered it according to the manner."


The calf and the lamb (Lev. 9:3).


"And offered it according to the manner": Judgment, ordinance, and appointment of God respecting that sort of offerings (see Lev. 1:1).


The thing that stands out to me in this is, that Aaron has learned his lesson well, and he is doing the offerings in the proper order.


Leviticus 9:17 And he brought the meat offering, and took a handful thereof, and burnt [it] upon the altar, beside the burnt sacrifice of the morning."


Made of fine flour, with oil and frankincense put upon it (see Lev. 2:1).


"And took a handful thereof, and burnt it upon the altar" (see Lev. 2:2).


"Beside the burnt sacrifice of the morning": The daily morning sacrifice, which was not to be omitted on account of these extraordinary sacrifices, both for the priest and for the people. Or "after the burnt sacrifice of the morning"; for no sacrifice was offered up before that: so Jarchi.


We must not forget that the meat offering had no animal flesh involved. It contained the elements to make bread. Jesus is the Bread of life. Jesus spoke of His flesh as the Bread.


John 6:51 "I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world."


This Scripture in John makes it very clear why this offering of bread is called meat. It symbolizes the flesh of Jesus.


Leviticus 9:18 "He slew also the bullock and the ram [for] a sacrifice of peace offerings, which [was] for the people: and Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood, which he sprinkled upon the altar round about,"


That they might feast, rejoice, and be glad that atonement was made for their sins, and their gifts and sacrifices accepted of God (see Rom. 5:11).


"And Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood": Of the peace offerings, the bullock and the ram, which they had received into a vessel as they were killing them.


"Which he sprinkled upon the altar round about": As he did with the blood of his own burnt offering (Lev. 9:12).


The important thing to remember is, that Jesus is our peace.


Ephesians 2:14 "For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition [between us];"


Leviticus 9:19 "And the fat of the bullock and of the ram, the rump, and that which covereth [the inwards], and the kidneys, and the caul [above] the liver:"


Which in all offerings was the Lord's, and was burnt (see Lev. 3:16).


"The rump": Or tail of the ram. Which in those countries was very large, and had a great deal of fat upon it (see notes on Exodus 29:22; Lev. 3:9).


"And that which covereth the inwards": Called the "omentum".


"And the kidneys, and the caul above the liver": And the fat that was upon each of these. Ben Gersom observes, that the kidneys and liver are mentioned last, to show that they were laid uppermost in waving (after directed to), that the owners might be stirred up, or moved by these things.


Leviticus 9:20 "And they put the fat upon the breasts, and he burnt the fat upon the altar:"


Both of the bullock and of the ram, while they were waving.


"And he burnt the fat upon the altar": After having been waved.


The fat in every offering was God's. The rump here, was actually the fat tail of the animal. The fat and all of these inward parts were to be burned as a sweet savor to the LORD. The breast was not burned here. It was just the fat and inwards burned.


Leviticus 9:21 "And the breasts and the right shoulder Aaron waved [for] a wave offering before the LORD; as Moses commanded."


The breasts of the bullock and the ram, and the right shoulders of them both.


"Aaron waved for a wave offering before the Lord": Which was given to him as his part of the peace offerings, after they had been thus waved before the Lord. Whereby an acknowledgment was made that he was Lord of all, and had a right to all they had. In token of which these parts were given to his priests towards their maintenance.


"As Moses commanded (see Exodus 29:27).


This waving of the breast and shoulder was raising it up to God in offering, that God might bless it for their consumption later. The priest would eat this breast after it was properly cooked such as boiling or baking.


Leviticus 9:22 And Aaron lifted up his hand toward the people, and blessed them, and came down from offering of the sin offering, and the burnt offering, and peace offerings.


After he had offered the above sacrifices both for himself and them. The manner of the priests lifting up their hands when they blessed is thus described. In the provinces, the priests lifted up their hands to their shoulders, and in the sanctuary above their heads. Excepting the high priest, who did not lift up his hands above the plate of gold. But R. Judah says, the high priest lifted up his hands above the plate, as it is said (Lev. 9:22). The modern Jews describe it thus: they lift up their hands to their shoulders, and they lift up the right hand somewhat higher than the left. Then they stretch out their hands, and part their fingers, and frame them so as to make five airs. Between two fingers and two fingers one air, and between the forefinger and the thumb, and between the two thumbs. They spread out their hands so, that the middle (or palm) of the hand may be towards the earth, and the back part of it towards heaven. Aaron lifted his hands upwards, signifying from whence he implored the blessing, and towards the people on whom he desired it might descend. In this was a type of Christ, who, after he had offered himself a sacrifice for the sins of his people, when he was risen from the dead and about to ascend to heaven, blessed his disciples (Luke 24:50). In Christ, the saints are blessed with all spiritual blessings. By him they are procured for them, through his blood, sacrifice, and satisfaction. And he ever lives to make intercession for the application of them to them (see Eph. 1:3).


"And came down from offering of the sin offering, and the burnt offering, and peace offerings": From the altar with joy, as the Targum of Jonathan. Being glad he had done his service with acceptance. He is said to "come down", there being a rise or ascent to the altar, which, as Aben Ezra observes, was three cubits high, and therefore it is with propriety said he came down. Which he did as soon as he had made an end of offering all the sacrifices.


Up until this time, all blessings of God spoken on the people had been done by Moses. Now Aaron is taking on his job as high priest. He is speaking a blessing that actually came from God, but God used him to speak it. This lifting up his hands toward heaven showed that Aaron knew where his power came from. All of the offerings had foreshadowed the sacrifice that Jesus would make for us all. This sin offering showed the placing of the sin on the one being offered. Our sins were placed on Jesus and He became our substitute (in the sin offering). In the burnt offering, we see Christ offered up to God (a sweet savor to God). I believe the statement (not my will but thine), is covered in this offering, as we said earlier in this lesson. Jesus is our peace. We could say in the peace offering, not by works, but by grace am I saved. All of these offerings are made in a short time period. It is impossible to separate them totally. They all symbolize some aspect of what God did for all believers through Jesus Christ.


Leviticus 9:23 "And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the congregation, and came out, and blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people."


They went out of the court where the altar of burnt offering stood, and where Aaron had been offering the sacrifices. And they went into the Holy Place, where stood the altar of incense, the showbread table, and the candlestick. And it is probable Moses went in with Aaron there to show him how to offer the incense, to order the showbread on the table, and to light and trim the lamps of the candlestick. And so Jarchi observes, that he went in to teach him concerning the business of the incense. But it may be, it was also to pray for the people, as the Targum, and for the Lord's appearance to them, as was promised and expected. And that fire might descend on the sacrifices as a token of acceptance of them, as Aben Ezra notes.


"And came out, and blessed the people": Aaron had blessed them before, but now both Moses and Aaron blessed them. Atonement being made by the sacrifice of Christ, and law and justice thereby fully satisfied. Christ and the law agree together in the blessing of the Lord's people. The way was hereby made for the communication of blessings to them, consistent with the law of God, and his holiness and justice (Gal. 3:10).


"And the glory of the Lord appeared unto all the people": Some visible signs of his glory, some very great splendor or luster, or breaking forth of his glory. Or Christ, the glory of the Father, appeared in a human form, as a pledge of his future incarnation, when all the above sacrifices, which were types of him, would have their accomplishment. And this being immediately upon the offering of them, may signify that the glory of God greatly appears in the sacrifice and satisfaction of Christ, and in the redemption and salvation of his people in that way (Psalm 21:4). And the glorious and gracious presence of God is enjoyed by his people, in consequence of the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ, which was signified by the mercy seat, from whence the Lord communed. And it is through Christ, his blood and sacrifice, saints have access to God, and fellowship with him (Eph. 2:18).


We sing a little chorus at our church which says (I want to see Jesus). I believe that is the desire of all true believers in Christ. I refuse to worship in any church where the presence of God is absent. We know that the presence of God was in the sanctuary in the Holy of Holies. Remember, the congregation could not go into that area. The presence of Moses and Aaron here, shows the people that God speaks through them both. This glory spoken of here I believe, is the Shekinah glory of God. In this the people would not see the face of God, but a great presence of light. This Light would be the same Light that Paul encountered on the road to Damascus when his life was totally transformed.


Acts 9:3 "And as he journeyed, he came near Damascus: and suddenly there shined round about him a light from heaven:"


We know that man cannot see the face of God and live. This is a presence of God that cannot be denied, such as a very bright light. Many times throughout the Bible, God has appeared to someone. Usually he appears in some form of fire, or smoke made by fire, or a light.


Leviticus 9:24 "And there came a fire out from before the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat: [which] when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces."


Either from heaven, or from the Holy of Holies, where was the symbol of the divine Presence, and Jehovah had now taken up his residence.


"And consumed upon the altar the burnt offering, and the fat": according to Aben Ezra, the burnt offering of Aaron, and of the people, and of the daily sacrifice. For so it is written, besides the burnt offering of the morning (Lev. 9:17). And the fat of the calf and ram of Aaron, and of the goat, ox, and ram of the people, which though they were laid upon the altar at the time of their offering. Yet it is thought by some they were not burnt till now. Yet, with respect to the persons for whom this sacrifice was offered, it denotes acceptance of it, that it was an offering by fire, and of a sweet smelling savor to God. His law and justice being satisfied, and having honor done them. Concerning this fire, and the perpetual burning of it (see notes on Lev. 6:12; 6:13).


"Which when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces": Aaron blessing them, and the appearance of the glory of God unto them, no doubt, gave them joy and pleasure, as the spiritual blessings by Christ, and the gracious presence of God do to his people (Psalm 103:1). But what filled them with joy unspeakable was the acceptance of their sacrifices, as typical of the sacrifice of Christ, and atonement by it, which made them shout. And the court to ring with it; and yet fell down on their faces with all reverence and humility, under a sense of the divine Majesty being so near unto them, in this sensible token of his presence.


There was fire already present on the altar for these offerings. Generally, the fire under the offerings would take the period of a full day to consume the offering. This was an unusual fire then. Look in the following verse what God calls Himself.


Hebrews 12:29 "For our God[is] a consuming fire."


This fire that totally consumes this offering then is the fire of God, which came from the Holy of Holies and consumed these offerings. This very same thing happened when Solomon dedicated the great temple in Jerusalem.


2 Chronicles 7:1 "Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the LORD filled the house."


This is the very same thing that happened to Moses, Aaron, and the people here. God was so pleased, that He overwhelmed them with His presence. His immediate consumption of the offering showed that He was greatly pleased with their offering. One more time that I think shows this same thing so strongly, is when Elijah challenged the prophets of Baal to call fire from heaven. If they had consumed the offering with fire, they would win. If Elijah's God consumed his offering, they were all to follow Elijah's God. Let us see what happened.


1 Kings 18:19-39 "Now therefore send, [and] gather to me all Israel unto mount Carmel, and the prophets of Baal four hundred and fifty, and the prophets of the groves four hundred, which eat at Jezebel's table." "So Ahab sent unto all the children of Israel, and gathered the prophets together unto mount Carmel." "And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long halt ye between two opinions? if the LORD [be] God, follow him: but if Baal, [then] follow him. And the people answered him not a word." "Then said Elijah unto the people, I, [even] I only, remain a prophet of the LORD; but Baal's prophets [are] four hundred and fifty men." "Let them therefore give us two bullocks; and let them choose one bullock for themselves, and cut it in pieces, and lay [it] on wood, and put no fire [under]: and I will dress the other bullock, and lay [it] on wood, and put no fire [under]:" And call ye on the name of your gods, and I will call on the name of the LORD: and the God that answereth by fire, let him be God. And all the people answered and said, It is well spoken." "And Elijah said unto the prophets of Baal, Choose you one bullock for yourselves, and dress [it] first; for ye [are] many; and call on the name of your gods, but put no fire [under]." "And they took the bullock which was given them, and they dressed [it], and called on the name of Baal from morning even until noon, saying, O Baal, hear us. But [there was] no voice, nor any that answered. And they leaped upon the altar which was made." "And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and said, Cry aloud: for he [is] a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, [or] peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked." "And they cried aloud, and cut themselves after their manner with knives and lancets, till the blood gushed out upon them." "And it came to pass, when midday was past, and they prophesied until the [time] of the offering of the [evening] sacrifice, that [there was] neither voice, nor any to answer, nor any that regarded." "And Elijah said unto all the people, Come near unto me. And all the people came near unto him. And he repaired the altar of the LORD [that was] broken down." "And Elijah took twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, unto whom the word of the LORD came, saying, Israel shall be thy name:" "And with the stones he built an altar in the name of the LORD: and he made a trench about the altar, as great as would contain two measures of seed." "And he put the wood in order, and cut the bullock in pieces, and laid [him] on the wood, and said, Fill four barrels with water, and pour [it] on the burnt sacrifice, and on the wood." "And he said, Do [it] the second time. And they did [it] the second time. And he said, Do [it] the third time. And they did [it] the third time." "And the water ran round about the altar; and he filled the trench also with water." "And it came to pass at [the time of] the offering of the [evening] sacrifice, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said, LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that thou [art] God in Israel, and [that] I [am] thy servant, and [that] I have done all these things at thy word." "Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this people may know that thou [art] the LORD God, and [that] thou hast turned their heart back again." "Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that [was] in the trench." "And when all the people saw [it], they fell on their faces: and they said, The LORD, he [is] the God; the LORD, he [is] the God."


The effect of the extreme presence of God is always the same. They fall on their face to worship Him. This manifestation is so great; it leaves no doubt that this is God. Read the rest of 1 Kings chapter 18 of to get the full story.


To sum up this lesson, Moses has followed God's instructions. Aaron is installed as high priest. God is pleased, and the people realize this is God's plan, and not man's plan.


Leviticus Chapter 9 Continued Questions


1. What was different in the people's offering and the priest's offering?


2. What lesson can we learn in this?


3. What is strange about the meat offering, being called meat?


4. What do the elements of the meat offering make up?


5. Who is the Bread?


6. What does the offering of bread as a meat offering symbolize?


7. Who is the Christian's peace?


8. The fat in every offering belonged to whom?


9. The fat burned made a ________ ________ to God.


10. What did the waving of the breast symbolize?


11. Who had spoken the blessings of God to the people, before Aaron was ordained?


12. What did the fact that Aaron raised his hands toward heaven symbolize?


13. Jesus was our ____________ for our sin, in the sin offering.


14. Jesus was a sweet savor unto God for us in which offering?


15. In which offering was Jesus our peace?


16. What is the desire of every true Christian?


17. Where was the presence of God ordinarily, in the tabernacle in the wilderness?


18. What does the author believe the glory of the LORD to be?


19. Who did this glory appear to?


20. What did Paul see, when the glory of the LORD appeared to him?


21. What did the Fire do that came out in front of the people?


22. What effect did this have on the people?


23. What happened when Solomon had finished praying, when the temple in Jerusalem was dedicated to God?


24. What did this immediate consumption of the offering by God show the people?


25. What false god did Elijah and the real God discredit on Mount Carmel?


26. How many prophets of Baal prayed to their false god?


27. How long did they pray?


28. Did their long prayer help?


29. What other obstacle did Elijah place before God?


30. What happened when Elijah prayed to the real God?


31. What effect did this have on the people?


32. Sum up this lesson.





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Leviticus 10



Leviticus Chapter 10

Verses 1-7: "Nadab and Abihu ... his censer": The censers were fairly flat pans in which burning coals were carried. The "strange fire" has many different interpretations:


(1) Coals that were not taken from the altar as required in 16:12;


(2) Offering it at the wrong time of day (compare Exodus 30:7-9), which prohibits "strange incense";


(3) Apparently, no one except the High-Priest himself should place incense on a censer of coals and present it to God; or


(4) That Nadab and Abihu were even intoxicated, thus making the prohibition of (verse 9), significant.


Whatever the case may have been, it is clear that it was strange fire "which he commanded them not;" they certainly knew that it was in violation of God's Word. God's words "I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me, and before all the people I will be glorified", set the theme for the whole book. The whole nation was called to be holy (19:2). A clearer translation would be": Among those who approach Me I will show Myself holy; in the sight of all the people I will be honored". Any disobedience of God's commands detracted from His glory! Those who begin to approach God must know that He is "separate from everyone else" and must approach Him on His terms. Even in a time of great calamity, the priests of the Lord must set an example to the nation of strict obedience to the will of God: "and ye shall not go out from the door of the tabernacle ... lest ye die (verse 7). Nothing must be allowed to interfere with the work of the ministry.


Leviticus 10:1 "And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either of them his censer, and put fire therein, and put incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the LORD, which he commanded them not."


"Nadab and Abihu": These were the two oldest sons of Aaron.


"His censer": The vessels in which the incense was burned in the Holy Place (its features are unknown), was to be used only for holy purposes.'


"Strange fire": Though the exact infraction is not detailed, in some way they violated the prescription of offering incense (compare Exodus 30:9, 34-38), probably because they were drunk (see verses 8-9). Instead of taking the incense fire from the brazen altar, they had some other source for the fire and thus perpetrated an act, which, considering the descent of the miraculous fire they had just seen and their solemn duty to do as God told them, betrayed carelessness, irreverence, and lack of consideration for God. Such a tendency had to be punished for all priests to see as a warning.


God's service requires the right approach to God, the right source for God's power, and the right spiritual attitude. Nadab and Abihu failed to see the mind of God and acted in self-will. The act typifies the use of carnal means to kindle fires of true devotion and praise.


The word strange, in the verse above, means profane or commit adultery. In this case, this would be spiritual adultery. Nadab and Abihu had been instructed in the things of the sanctuary along with Aaron. They knew how important it was to keep every little detail. Perhaps they were so excited by the presence of God that they forgot this training. Verse 1 above begins with an "and", which indicates that this happened at the same time as the happenings in chapter 9. We do not know where they got the fire from in the verse above. We really do not know what was wrong about the offering at all. Perhaps they had made an offering to God that only the high priest was to give. As we read on in this chapter, Aaron is warned of God not to allow anyone ministering in the sanctuary to drink alcoholic beverages. To say for sure, just what the offence was, would be an error on our part. We do know that whatever they did, it was not offered God's way. We ended the last chapter by saying that the important thing was for these offerings to be done God's way and not man's way. There is a verification of this in numbers.


Numbers 26:61 "And Nadab and Abihu died, when they offered strange fire before the LORD."


Whatever this sin was, they each committed it. The Scripture says either of them took his censer.


Leviticus 10:2 "And there went out fire from the LORD, and devoured them, and they died before the LORD."


"Went out fire": The same divine fire that accepted the sacrifices (9:24), consumed the errant priests. That was not unlike the later deaths of Uzzah (2 Sam. 6:6-7), or Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5:5, 10).


God was quick in His judgement of them. He killed them. Many believe that these two priestly sons of Aaron had indulged in alcoholic beverages and were attempting to minister in the tabernacle under the influence of this alcohol. This could certainly be the case. Not only would God not let them minister in the tabernacle under the influence of alcohol, but their judgement would be greatly impaired on how they were to go about the service to the Lord. It really doesn't matter what was the problem, they were guilty of sin and God killed them. These sons of Aaron had been trained in the ways of the sanctuary, and they were without excuse. These were not just any young men, but were in authority in the tabernacle, just under Aaron. For sure, this would make a never ending impression on the onlookers. Most people want to believe in Jesus and believe He is their Savior, but very few want to acknowledge the fact that He is also Judge. The same God, who blesses if His commandments are kept, will curse if they are not kept.


Leviticus 10:3 "Then Moses said unto Aaron, This [is it] that the LORD spake, saying, I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me, and before all the people I will be glorified. And Aaron held his peace."


The experience of Nadab and Abihu is a staunch reminder that those who "come nigh" to the Lord must regard Him as "holy", for as God says, "Before all the people I will be glorified". By his silence, Aaron acknowledges that the Lord was justified in slaying his sons.


"I will be sanctified ... I will be glorified": Nadab and Abihu were guilty of violating both requirements of God's absolute standard. The priests had received repeated and solemn warnings as to the necessity of reverence before God (see Exodus 19:22; 29:44).


"Aaron held his peace": In spite of losing his two sons, he did not complain, but submitted to the righteous judgment of God.


Moses was actually the uncle of these boys, and he hated what happened to them. Moses quickly reminds Aaron that God is justified in this. This tabernacle was not to be as the world, but was to be a separate place. The high priest and his sons, the priests, were to glorify God in everything they did. They could not glorify God, unless everything was done His way. This tells us so much about how we should conduct services to God. WE CANNOT BRING THE WORLD INTO THE CHURCH.


That does not glorify God. Ministers are the only visible connection some people will ever have with God (here on the earth). Just as Aaron represented God to the people in the tabernacle then, our ministers represent God to their congregation now. The minister and his or her family, must live beyond reproach to be able to show the world Christ in them. Aaron does not speak out against what God has done, because he knows it was justified.


Leviticus 10:4 And Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Uzziel the uncle of Aaron, and said unto them, Come near, carry your brethren from before the sanctuary out of the camp."


"Mishael and Elzaphan" (see Exodus 6:22 for their lineage). This procedure prevented the priests from defiling themselves by handling the dead bodies (Lev. 21:1), and allowed the whole congregation to see the result of such disregard for the holiness of God.,


"Out of the camp": As this was done with the ashes of sacrificed animals (6:11), so it was done with the remains of these two priests who received God's wrath.


Moses, Aaron, or the other sons of Aaron could not touch a dead body while they were ministering in the temple. Mishael and Elzaphan were cousins of the 2 dead and they were called of Moses to come and take the bodies away. One of the Scriptures covering this is found in:


Leviticus 21:10-12 "And [he that is] the high priest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil was poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not uncover his head, nor rend his clothes;" "Neither shall he go in to any dead body, nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother;" "Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the crown of the anointing oil of his God [is] upon him: I [am] the LORD."


Leviticus 10:5 "So they went near, and carried them in their coats out of the camp; as Moses had said."


To the place where the bodies lay, having an order from Moses so to do.


"And carried them in their coats out of the camp, as Moses had said": Or bid them to do. They took them up in their clothes as they found them, and carried them away in them. Not that these men carried them in their own coats, but in the coats of the dead men, as Jarchi expresses it. And took them without the camp, and there buried them. Probably in the coats in which they had sinned, and in which they died. The Targum of Jonathan says, they carried them on iron hooks in their coats, and buried them without the camp.


Had these two not been called to do this task, they would have been in trouble too. The thing that saved them was the fact they were called. They covered them up with their coats. This had to be a sobering lesson, not only for Aaron and his sons, but for the congregation, as well.


Verses 6-7: The prohibition against the customary signs of mourning was usually reserved for the High-Priest only as prescribed in (21:10-12). Here, Moses applies it to Eleazar and Ithamar also.


To "uncover" one's head and "rend ... clothes", were mourning practices at the time. As priests who were ministering before the Lord (21:10-12), Aaron and his surviving sons, Eleazar and Ithamar", were to remain in the tabernacles and perform their work. Others would mourn ("bewail the burning"), in their place.


Leviticus 10:6 "And Moses said unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons, Uncover not your heads, neither rend your clothes; lest ye die, and lest wrath come upon all the people: but let your brethren, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning which the LORD hath kindled."


"Eleazar and ... Ithamar": Aaron's youngest sons who yet lived. Later, the line of Eleazar would be designated as the unique line of the High-Priest (compare Num. 25:10-13).


Aaron and his other 2 sons are not to mourn at all for the 2 brothers that were killed by God. This would show that they believed the punishment of God was just. The congregation would be allowed to grieve, but Aaron, Ithamar, and Eleazar could not show any signs of mourning, or the wrath of God would fall not, only on them, but on the entire congregation. I believe the bewailing the congregation did was also a kind of trembling at the wrath of God in action.


Leviticus 10:7 "And ye shall not go out from the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: for the anointing oil of the LORD [is] upon you. And they did according to the word of Moses."


That is, they were not to relinquish the service of the sanctuary, on the account of the death of their relations. And through in grief for it, they must go on. Not Aaron on account of his children, nor his sons on account of their brethren. From here, says Ben Gersom, we learn, that whatsoever priest leaves his service, and goes out of the sanctuary, is guilty of death. Some think the seven days of consecration were not quite over, during which time Aaron and his sons were obliged to continue there, on fear of death (Lev. 8:33). But it is pretty plain those days were over, and that it was the day after the consecration was finished (see Lev. 9:1 and notes on Lev. 10:2). Wherefore this respects their continuance in the tabernacle on the day the above affair happened. And they were obliged to continue in and go through the service of the day, notwithstanding that.


"For the anointing oil of the Lord is upon you": A learned man infers from hence, that this affair happened within the days of consecration. They being every day freshly anointed with oil, at least had it, with the blood of the sacrifices, sprinkled on them, and on their garments. Taking it in the strict sense, for the oil being still upon them. Whereas it seems only to signify, that inasmuch as they were consecrated with oil to the priest's office, they were under obligation to continue and perform their service without being hindered by what had happened.


"And they did according to the word of Moses": They showed no tokens of mourning on account of the dead, and did not offer to go out of the tabernacle and leave their service.


The fear of God was greater than their desire to grieve. They did as Moses told them. They would not be able to bury their own dead. It was a very serious thing to be anointed with the holy oil for service in the tabernacle. A very good example of this is when Jesus said, let the dead bury their dead in Matthew.


Matthew 8:22 "But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead."


Another Scripture that indicates the calling of God is ahead of all other calls, is in:


Luke 9:60 "Jesus said unto him, Let the dead bury their dead: but go thou and preach the kingdom of God."


I would tend to believe that this is saying, if a person is dead, there is nothing you can do for them. Go to the living and preach the gospel, so that when they die, they will spend eternity in heaven. This may seem to be a hard lesson, but I believe God is trying to drive home the fact that the call of God has to be above everything else. A person who answers that call has to put the world behind them. Their thoughts and deeds must be stayed on God. The world must be able to see Jesus in you. Even family must not stop you from serving God. The call of God, is without repentance. There are few pleasures in this life for those who choose to answer that call, but the rewards in heaven far outweigh any problems we might face here on the earth. Once you have decided to serve, never look back, just move forward with God. This next Scripture tells of how God feels about those who do not stay with their call.


Luke 9:62 "And Jesus said unto him, No man, having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God."


Leviticus Chapter 10 Questions


1. Who were the 2 sons of Aaron who offered strange fire before the LORD?


2. What does the word strange mean in verse 1?


3. What kind of adultery would this be?


4. What single word in verse 1 indicates that chapter 10 is a continuation of chapter 9?


5. What were 2 of the possible wrong-doings these sons did?


6. What important message did we end the last lesson with, that applies here?


7. In what other book of the Bible do we read of the wrong-doings of Nadab and Abihu?


8. How do we know that both of the sons committed this sin?


9. What killed Nadab and Abihu?


10. What do a great number of people believe the sin was, of these 2?


11. What position in the tabernacle did Nadab and Abihu hold?


12. We all want Jesus as our Savior, but we do not want to admit He is our ________.


13. Moses told Aaron that God wanted to be sanctified in whom?


14. Before all the people, God was to be _____________.


15. What does, Aaron held his peace mean?


16. We cannot bring the ________ into the church.


17. Who represented God to the people in the tabernacle?


18. Which 2 did Moses call to take the dead bodies out?


19. What relation were these 2 to the 2 who died?


20. Why could not their other 2 brothers take them out?


21. What special rules prevailed over Aaron while the anointing of the tabernacle with the oil was upon him?


22. How did the 2 cousins carry the dead bodies out?


23. What other 2 sons of Aaron are mentioned in verse 6?


24. What warning did Moses give Aaron and his 2 remaining sons?


25. Who would the wrath of God fall on, if Aaron or his 2 remaining sons disobeyed God in this?


26. In what Scripture did Jesus say, "Let the dead bury the dead"?


27. What does the author believe this is really saying?


28. The call of God has to be above ______________




Leviticus Chapter 10 Continued

Verses 8-11: The tabernacle priests were not to "drink wine or strong drink" before conducting their sacred duties, because they were more likely to make serious errors that might lead to their death, as Nadab and Abihu had done (Prov. 20:1).


Taken in its context, this prohibition suggests that intoxication led Nadab and Abihu to perform their blasphemous act (compare Prov. 23:20-35; 1 Tim. 3:3; Titus 1:7).


Leviticus 10:8 "And the LORD spake unto Aaron, saying,"


Because he was a prophet, Aben Ezra says. But the reason rather seems to be, because he was the High-Priest, and now invested with his office, and in the execution of it. And therefore, the following law respecting the priest's drinking of wine was given. Some say, as the same writer observes, that God spake to him by Moses; but it rather seems that he spoke to Aaron immediately. According to Jarchi, this order was delivered to him as a reward for his silence, and to do honor to him on that account.


"Saying": As follows.


Notice the change in who the LORD speaks to here. We have been reading over and over (the LORD spoke to Moses), but here He speaks directly to Aaron. This is because Aaron is the anointed High-Priest. Now God would speak to the people through Aaron the High-Priest.


Leviticus 10:9 "Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: [it shall be] a statute for ever throughout your generations:"


As the command that the priests are to abstain from any intoxicating liquors when performing their sacred functions follows so closely upon the death of Nadab and Abihu. The opinion obtained as early at least as the time of Christ that there is a connection between the specific sin and the general law. That the two sons of Aaron drank wine to excess when they offered strange fire, and that the present prohibition is based upon that circumstance. Accordingly, the Apostle enjoins that a bishop "must not be given to wine," that "deacons must not be given to much wine" (1 Tim. 3:2-3). A similar law existed among the ancient Greeks and Persians, enjoining the priests to abstain from wine.


"Nor strong drink": The word (shēchār) here rendered strong drink, is the general name of intoxicating drinks, whether made of wheat, barley, millet, apples, dates, honey, or other fruits.


"When ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation": Better, when ye go into the tent of meeting. The Palestinian Chaldee adds here, "as thy sons did who died by the burning fire." The same precept is repeated in (Ezek. 44:21), "Neither shall any priest drink wine when they enter into the inner court." The injunction that on these particular occasions the priests are to abstain from taking it clearly implies that, ordinarily, when not going into the tent of meeting. That is, when not performing their sacred functions in the sanctuary, they were not forbidden to use it if required.


This is the Scripture that makes many believe that Nadab and Abihu were drinking in the sanctuary when God struck them dead. They had been eating their part of the offering, and it is not too wild a speculation that they were probably washing it down with a little wine. The truth of the matter is that most people cannot stop with just a glass of wine and usually become intoxicated. The best way not to get drunk, is not to take the first drink. The entire sanctuary was a very holy place. No drinking at all should have taken place here. All strong drink was forbidden to the priests while they were serving in the sanctuary. God tells Aaron directly, here, that (strong drink will never be allowed), in the sanctuary. There are several instances in the Bible when strong drink brings disaster. Lot got drunk, and each of his daughters slept with him and committed incest. The families these 2 girls had from these babies were always at odds with God.


Genesis 19:33-36 "And they made their father drink wine that night: and the firstborn went in, and lay with her father; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose." "And it came to pass on the morrow, that the firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yesternight with my father: let us make him drink wine this night also; and go thou in, [and] lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father." "And they made their father drink wine that night also: and the younger arose, and lay with him; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose." "Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father."


In a drunken stupor, Lot had done what he would have never done had he known what he was doing. Alcohol harms those who get involved in its use then, or now. Most all the ordinances God has placed on man are for man's benefit.


Leviticus 10:10 "And that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean;"


That being sober they might be able to distinguish between the one and the other. Which a drunken man, having his mind and senses disturbed, is not capable of. As between holy and unholy persons, and between holy and unholy things. Particularly, as Aben Ezra interprets it, between a sacred place and one that is common, and between a holy day and a common week day. The knowledge and memory of which may be lost through intemperance. And so, that may be done in a place and on a day which ought not to be done, or that omitted on a day and in a place which ought to be done.


"And between unclean and clean": Between unclean men and women, beasts and fowls, and clean ones. And between unclean things in a ceremonial sense. And those that are clean, which a man drinking liquor may be no judge of. Hence, as the above writer observes, after this section follow laws concerning fowls clean and unclean, the purification of a woman after childbirth, the leprosy in men, garments and houses, and concerning menstruous persons. All which the priests were to be judges of, and therefore ought to be sober.


If drinking is bad for the world, then it is terrible for those who are the called of God. Alcohol causes confused thought. A person who has been drinking does not have full control of himself and would probably make the wrong decision many times. Holiness requires separation from all worldly things. Alcohol is very definitely worldly.


Leviticus 10:11 "And that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses."


"Teach the children of Israel": It was essential that alcohol not hinder the clarity of their minds, since the priests were to teach God's law to all of Israel. They were the expositors of the Scripture, alongside the prophets who generally received the Word directly from the Lord. Ezra would become the supreme example of a commendable priest (Ezra 7:10).


We see that the responsibility to teach the people the things of God has been taken off Moses, and is now on Aaron. It is Aaron's responsibility to teach the congregation the way to live day to day in a way pleasing unto God. We have spoken before about the difference in an evangelist and a pastor. One of the pastor's duties is to teach the people to live daily lives pleasing unto God. We see from this that Aaron is to do the job of a pastor of the church now. God gave them these statutes through Moses. Moses gave them the instructions, but Aaron is to see that they keep them from day to day. In this, you can see the role of the evangelist in Moses and the role of pastor in Aaron.


Leviticus 10:12 "And Moses spake unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons that were left, Take the meat offering that remaineth of the offerings of the LORD made by fire, and eat it without leaven beside the altar: for it [is] most holy:"


Of the burning, as the Targum of Jonathan. Who survived his other two sons that were burnt, who remained alive. Not being concerned with them in their sin, and so shared not in their punishment.


"Take the meat offering that remaineth of the offerings of the Lord made by fire": For all but the handful that was burnt of that kind of offerings belonged to the priests (see Lev. 6:14). This meat offering, according to Jarchi, was the meat offering of the eighth day. That is, of the consecration, or the day after it was finished, on which the above awful case happened (Lev. 9:17). And also the meat offering of Naashon the son of Amminadab, of the tribe of Judah, who offered his offering first at the dedication of the altar, on the day the tabernacle was set up. Which he supposes was on this day (see Num. 7:1). Now these meat offerings were not as yet eaten, and which may be true of the first of them, wherefore Aaron and his sons, notwithstanding their mourning, are bid to take it.


"And eat it without leaven beside the altar": The altar of burnt offering in the court of the tabernacle, as directed (see notes on Lev. 6:16).


"For it is most holy": And so might be eaten by none but holy persons, such as were devoted to sacred services, and only in the holy place, as follows. Within hangings, where the most holy things were eaten, as Jarchi. That is, within the court of the tabernacle, which was made of hangings.


In this message, Moses continues the service that had been interrupted by the death of Aaron's 2 sons. Notice, Moses reminds them not to sin in the eating of the meat offering, lest they too might die. In other words, he says do it exactly the way you were instructed and do not add to or take away from the instructions. We see from the verse above, Aaron has 2 more sons Eleazar and Ithamar.


Leviticus 10:13 "And ye shall eat it in the holy place, because it [is] thy due, and thy sons' due, of the sacrifices of the LORD made by fire: for so I am commanded."


Not in that which was properly so called, but in the court of the tabernacle. At the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, as Aben Ezra. In some apartment there; for it was not to be carried out of the sanctuary, and eaten in their own houses or tents, as others might, after mentioned.


"Because it is thy due, and thy sons' due, of the offerings of the Lord made by fire": And not any others. Neither his wife nor his daughters, nor any other related to him, or whom he might invite, as in other cases, might eat of it. This none but he and his sons might eat of, and nowhere else but in the sanctuary.


"For so I am commanded": To make known and declare this as the will of God.


We remember from the earlier lessons that this was the part Aaron and his sons were to eat of the offering. They were to live of the things of the sanctuary.


Leviticus 10:14 "And the wave breast and heave shoulder shall ye eat in a clean place; thou, and thy sons, and thy daughters with thee: for [they be] thy due, and thy sons' due, [which] are given out of the sacrifices of peace offerings of the children of Israel."


The breast of the peace offerings that was waved, and the shoulder of them that was heaved before the Lord. These were given by him to the priests, towards the maintenance of their families (Lev. 7:34). And they might be eaten anywhere, provided the place was clean from all ceremonial pollution, and in which there were no polluted persons, as leprous ones. They were to be eaten within the camp, as Jarchi observes, where lepers came not. For, as he adds, the light holy things, such as these were, might be eaten in every city. And so it is said in the Misnah, and by the commentators on it.


"Thou and thy sons, and thy daughters with thee": These were not restrained to him and his sons only. As the meat offerings, and the flesh of the sin offerings were, but were common to the whole family.


"For they be thy due, and thy sons' due": For their service of the sanctuary, and by the appointment and direction of the Lord.


"Which are given out of the sacrifices of peace offerings of the children of Israel": Of which (see Lev. 7:1). These are said to be "given out" of them, for the whole was not given, only the breast and shoulder. And after the fat was burnt, the rest belonged to the owners, with which they kept a feast of joy and thankfulness.


The quarters that the family lived in is the place intended, but even in this place there must not be anything or anyone that would cause it to be unclean. As we said before, the priest's family was to live of the things of the tabernacle.


Leviticus 10:15 "The heave shoulder and the wave breast shall they bring with the offerings made by fire of the fat, to wave [it for] a wave offering before the LORD; and it shall be thine, and thy sons' with thee, by a statute for ever; as the LORD hath commanded."


Not the priests, but the owners to the priests (Lev. 7:29). With the offerings made by fire of the fat. Upon the inwards, kidneys, and caul of the liver, which was all burnt.


"To wave it for a wave offering before the Lord": The shoulder was lifted up, and the breast waved to and fro before the Lord of the whole earth. And towards the several parts of it, to show and own his right to all they had. And then they were given to the priests as a token of it.


"And it shall be thine, and thy sons with thee": Both the shoulder and the breast.


"By a statute for ever": To be observed as long as the ceremonial law and Levitical priesthood lasted. Even to the end of the Jewish age and economy, and the coming of the Messiah.


"As the Lord hath commanded (Lev. 7:33).


We will remember one thing in particular about this offering, which we have covered in other lessons. The heaving and waving of this before the Lord was thanking God for this and other blessings He had provided.


Verses 16-20: "Moses" was initially "angry" with Eleazar and Ithamar when he discovered they had "burnt" the entire carcass of the people's sin offering (9:15), instead of eating it as prescribed (6:26), until Aaron explained that the tragic events of the day had eradicated their hunger. God had mercy on them because they had done everything else properly.


Leviticus 10:16 "And Moses diligently sought the goat of the sin offering, and, behold, it was burnt: and he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron [which were] left [alive], saying,"


The Targum of Jonathan says, "three goats were offered on that day. The goat of the new moon; of the sin offering for the people; and of the sin offering. Which Naashon the son of Amminadab offered at the dedication of the altar. Aaron and his sons, it adds, went and burnt these three. Moses came and sought, etc. "Jarchi also speaks of three goats offered, but says that only one was burnt, the goat of the new moon. And so Ben Gersom, who gives this reason for the diligent search after it, because it was always to be offered up, and was not a temporary affair, as the others were. But it rather seems to be the goat of the sin offering for the people, for it is not certain that the other goats were offered on this day, but this was (see Lev. 9:15). Now according to the law, the flesh of this goat was not to be burnt, but to be eaten by the priests in the holy place (see Lev. 6:25). Moses now suspecting that Aaron and his sons, through their grief for the death of Nadab and Abihu, had neglected the eating of it, sought diligently after it, and so it proved.


"And, behold, it was burnt": As they had no appetite to it themselves, they burnt it, that it might not be eaten by any others, for none but they might eat it, and that it might not corrupt.


"And he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron, which were left alive": When their two elder brothers were killed with lightning for doing what was not commanded, which should have made them more observant of the laws of God, to do that which was commanded them. And though they were spared, and survived their brethren, yet they transgressed, in burning the sin offering of the people, when they should have eaten it. Jarchi observes, that he expressed his anger not to Aaron, but to his sons. Which he did for the honor of Aaron, laying the blame not on him, who was overwhelmed with grief, but on his sons.


"Saying": As follows.


In the confusion, when the 2 sons of Aaron had been killed of God, a grave error had been made in the offering Aaron had made. The sin offering which should have been eaten by the priest, had been burned. The error was, that Aaron had not eaten the meat of this offering for the congregation. Possibly in the commotion that followed the death of 2 of Aaron's sons there was a mistake made. Aaron took the blame upon himself for not seeing this done properly. He was so disturbed about his sons defiling the sanctuary, that he just overlooked this detail.


Leviticus 10:17 "Wherefore have ye not eaten the sin offering in the holy place, seeing it [is] most holy, and [God] hath given it you to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the LORD?"


The sin offering was one of the most holy things, and therefore to be eaten only in the sanctuary. Though this was not the fault they are here charged with that they had eat it, but not in the Holy Place. For they had not eaten it at all, but burnt it, as appears from the preceding verse. This is what they are blamed for particularly, though they are reminded of the whole law concerning it, that it was to be eaten by them. And that it was to be eaten in the Holy Place, the reason of which is given. But they had not eaten it anywhere.


"And God hath given it to you, to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the Lord?" For by eating the sin offering, or sin itself, as it is in the original text (see Hosea 4:8). They made the sins of the people, for whom the offering was, in some sense their own. And they bore them, and made a typical atonement for them. In which they were types of Christ, who was made sin for his people, took their sins upon him, and by imputation they were made his own. And he bore them in his own body on the tree, and made full satisfaction and atonement for them. Now since the eating of the sin offering of the people was of so great importance and consequence, the neglect of it by the priests was very blameworthy.


We see from this that, the ceremonial value of the priest eating this is what is concerning Moses. The minister of the congregation certainly does take the sins of the people on themselves as this states here. The main thing I see in this, however, is that Jesus the High Priest, has born the iniquity of us all. Jesus our High Priest is our atonement.


Leviticus 10:18 "Behold, the blood of it was not brought in within the holy [place]: ye should indeed have eaten it in the holy [place], as I commanded."


When that was the case, indeed, the flesh of the sin offering was not to be eaten, but burnt (see Lev. 6:30). But this was not the case now, and therefore its flesh should have been eaten, and not burnt.


"Ye should indeed have eaten it in the holy place, as I commanded (Lev. 6:26).


Moses has seen the wrath of God devour two of Aaron's sons this day, and he is reminding Aaron of the seriousness of what he has done.


Verses 19-20: Aaron's explanation for their failure to eat their portion of the offering was grief rather than defiance; thus, Moses' anger was relieved. Good leaders learn to balance fault and penalty; some mistakes merit grace than severe consequences.


Leviticus 10:19 "And Aaron said unto Moses, Behold, this day have they offered their sin offering and their burnt offering before the LORD; and such things have befallen me: and [if] I had eaten the sin offering today, should it have been accepted in the sight of the LORD?"


For what Moses had said was said in his presence, though not addressed to him directly, but to his sons. And he was sensible that he was pointed at, and that if there was any blame in this affair, it lay as much or more on him than on his sons. And therefore, he takes it upon him to give an answer, and to excuse the fact as well as he could.


"Behold, this day they have offered their sin offering and their burnt offering before the Lord": That is, the people of Israel had brought a kid of the goats for a sin offering, and a calf and a lamb for burnt offering. And he and his sons assisting him, had offered them for them. Even on the very day his two eldest sons were removed by death in an awful manner.


"And such things have befallen me": At this very time, soon after the above sacrifices were offered, happened the death of his two sons. Which occasioned great anguish and distress, grief and sorrow, so that he could not eat of the sin offering. He had no appetite for it, and if he had, he thought in his present circumstances it would not have been right, as follows.


"And if I had eaten the sin offering today, should it have been accepted in the sight of the Lord? He being a mourner. The Jews say a high priest may offer, being a mourner, but not eat. A common priest may neither offer nor eat. And which they illustrate by this passage, that Aaron offered and did not eat, but his sons did neither.


Aaron gives his excuse for his actions here. He first defends the 2 remaining sons, by saying they have offered their sin offering. Then Aaron says, that because his other 2 sons sinned so great a sin in the sanctuary, he was not sure God still wanted him to eat the flesh of the offering. All of these statements are understandable under the circumstances.


Leviticus 10:20 "And when Moses heard [that], he was content."


He rested satisfied with his answer, either because he thought it reasonable, seeing the letter of the law often times yields to necessities or great accidents (2 Chron. 30:18; Matt. 12:3-4). Or at least because the things alleged were mitigations of his fault, and he would not add affliction to the afflicted, but rather defer the debate of it to a fitter opportunity.


In this we see that Moses accepts Aaron's excuses. Moses, it seems, was still in the position of authority over Aaron. It was in his (Moses' power), to excuse the oversight.


Leviticus Chapter 10 Continued Questions


  1. What is different about verse 8 and the previous times God had sent a message?
  2. Why does God speak to Aaron here?
  3. Do not drink ______ or _________ ________, thou, nor thy sons with thee.
  4. Where was this ordinance from God for?
  5. If Aaron or his sons disobeyed this ordinance, what would happen to them?
  6. Most people who drink at all soon become ______________.
  7. Name an Old Testament person who did terrible things under the influence of strong drink.
  8. Who was just as much to blame for the sin as he was?
  9. What are most of the ordinances that God has made for?
  10. Alcohol causes ____________ thought.
  11. Holiness requires separation from what?
  12. Who was to teach God's statutes to the children of Israel?
  13. What is the role of an evangelist?
  14. What is the role of a pastor?
  15. Which of these do Moses and Aaron remind us of?
  16. Who did Moses tell to take of the meat offering and eat?
  17. What did Moses warn them about eating this offering?
  18. This most holy offering was to be eaten where?
  19. What are the names of the two remaining sons of Aaron?
  20. Where were they to eat of the wave breast and the heave shoulder?
  21. Who were added to the list of people that could eat of this offering?
  22. What was the one regulation placed on the eating of the peace offering?
  23. What were the heaving and the waving of this offering symbolic of?
  24. In the confusion when the 2 sons of Aaron were killed what did Aaron do that he should not have done?
  25. Who was Moses angry with for this oversight?
  26. What excuses did Aaron give for the error?
  27. What had really concerned Moses in this?
  28. What effect did this have on Moses?



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Leviticus 11



Leviticus Chapter 11

Verses 1-47: This section contains further legislation on the consumption of animals. Abel's offering hints at a "post-Fall/pre-Flood" diet of animals (Gen. 4:4). After the Noahic flood, God specifically had granted man permission to eat meat (Gen. 9:1-4), but here spelled out the specifics as covenant legislation. All of the reasons for the prohibitions are not specified. The major points were:


(1) That Israel was to obey God's absolute standard, regardless of the reason for it, or the lack of understanding of it; and


(2) Such a unique diet was specified that Israel would find it difficult to eat with the idolatrous people around and among them.


Their dietary laws served as a barrier to easy socialization with idolatrous peoples. Dietary and hygienic benefits were real, but only secondary to the divine purposes of obedience and separation.


Verses 1-8: Of the four-legged animals, only those with a divided hoof that also chewed the cud were permissible to eat. This included cattle, sheep, goats, and deer and excluded camels, rabbits, and pigs. The prohibition against eating "their flesh" also meant not touching their "carcase". Even the carcasses of clean animals were considered unclean (11:39-40; Deut. 14:3-8).


Leviticus 11:1 "And the LORD spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,"


The one being the chief magistrate, and the other the high priest, and both concerned to see the following laws put into execution. According to Jarchi, the Lord spoke to Moses that he might speak to Aaron; but being now in office, and one part of his office being to distinguish between clean and unclean, the following discourse is directed equally to him as to Moses.


"Saying unto them": As follows.


Leviticus 11:2 "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These [are] the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that [are] on the earth."


For to them only belong the following laws, and not unto the Gentiles, as Jarchi rightly observes. These were parts of the ceremonial law, which was peculiarly given to them, and lay, among other things, in meats and drinks.


"These are the beasts that ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth": They are not particularly mentioned here, but they are in (Deut. 14:4). And they are these ten: The ox, the sheep, and the goat, the hart, and the roebuck, and the fallow deer, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the wild ox, and the chamois. Of all (see notes on Deut. 14:4-5). Here's only some general things are observed to describe them by, as follow.


We will be studying in this lesson the dietary laws that God sent down to His chosen people. In the practice of the Mosaic law, it was very important what you ate and drank. Under grace all things are clean for the Christian, if they are prayed over before they are eaten.


1 Timothy 4:4-5 "For every creature of God [is] good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving:" "For it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer."


We also know about the sheet lowered from heaven, and Peter directed to kill and eat things that he had classified as unclean.


Acts 10:11-15 "And saw heaven opened, and a certain vessel descending unto him, as it had been a great sheet knit at the four corners, and let down to the earth:" "Wherein were all manner of fourfooted beasts of the earth, and wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls of the air." "And there came a voice to him, Rise, Peter; kill, and eat." "But Peter said, Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten any thing that is common or unclean." "And the voice [spake] unto him again the second time, What God hath cleansed, [that] call not thou common."


In giving this lesson on the dietary laws, I am not saying that we are to keep them today. I will, however, try to point out the obvious reasons God has given these ordinances.


Verses 3-23: This section is repeated in (Deut. 14:3-20), in almost exact wording. The subject matter includes animals (verses 3-8), water life (verses 9-12), birds (verses 13-19), and insects (verses 20-23).


Leviticus 11:3 "Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, [and] cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat."


That is, whose hoof is parted and cloven quite through. For there are some creatures that have partitions in their feet, but not quite through, they are parted above, but underneath are joined together by a skin. Wherefore both these phrases are used to describe the beasts lawful to be eaten. For such are all horned cattle; nor are there any cattle horned forbidden to be eaten.


"And cheweth the cud among the beasts, that shall ye eat": Who having no upper teeth cannot thoroughly chew their food at once, and therefore bring it up again out of their stomachs into their mouths and chew it over again, that it may be better prepared for digestion in the stomach, and so yield better nourishment. And this makes the flesh of such creatures fitter for food. And these creatures have more stomachs than one. The ventricles for rumination are four.


This would probably be better understood, if we knew that clovenfooted meant a claw, or a split hoof. It also means to split or tear and fissure. I do not believe that God was restricting these animals for the reason most believe. I believe that God was telling His family which animals He made for food and which animals were on the earth for other purposes.


Leviticus 11:4 "Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: [as] the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you."


The camel has a divided foot of two large parts, but the division is not complete and the two toes rest on an elastic pad.


The camel was obviously made by God for transportation for the desert people. The one thing that makes you know for sure that was God's purpose for this animal, is the fact that the camel can go many days without water. This would be a tremendous advantage in the desert. We studied in the book of Genesis that animals were made for the use of man. In the first chapter of Genesis beginning at the verse 20 all the way to the end of the chapter, you will read why God made the animals, fowls etc. God prepared the earth and everything on the earth, and then made man, after He had prepared the earth and made it habitable for man.


"Verses 5-6: "Coney ... hare": While not true ruminating animals, the manner in which these animals processed their food gave the distinct appearance of "chewing the cud".


Leviticus 11:5 "And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you."


"The coney": The Old English name for a rabbit. It bears some resemblance to the guinea-pig or the marmot, and in its general appearance and habits (Prov. 30:26; Psalm 104:18). It might easily be taken for a rodent. But Cuvier discovered that it is, in its anatomy, a true pachyderm, allied to the rhinoceros and the tapir, inferior to them as it is in size.


"He cheweth the cud": The Hyrax has the same habit as the hare, the rabbit, the guinea-pig, and some other rodents, of moving its jaws when it is at rest as if it were masticating. The rodents were familiarly spoken of as ruminating animals, just as the bat was reckoned among birds because it flies (see Lev. 11:19). And as whales and their congeners are spoken of as fish, when there is no occasion for scientific accuracy.


We would probably understand this a little better if we knew what the word coney means. This means a rock rabbit. A few years ago, many people learned the hard way why God had included this animal in the group of unclean. Rabbit fever became a threat to those who ate rabbit. Even today those who hunt rabbit, will not eat them at certain times of the year.


Leviticus 11:6 "And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he [is] unclean unto you."


Or, "though he chews" it.


"But divideth not the hoof, he is unclean to you": And so not to be eaten; so Plutarch says, that the Jews are said to abstain from the hare, disdaining it as a filthy and unclean animal. And yet was in the greatest esteem with the Romans of any four footed beast, as Martial says. Moses, as Bochart and other learned men observe, is the only writer that speaks of the hare as chewing the cud. Though they also observe, that Aristotle makes mention of that in common with those that do chew the cud, namely a "coagulum" in its stomach. His words are, "all that have many bellies have what is called a coagulum or runnet, and of them that have but one belly, the hare;" only that. This creature being prone to lust, may be an emblem of lustful persons, who give up themselves to lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness (Eph. 4:19). The "hare" in this verse may be an animal that is now is extinct but was alive at the time of Moses. Its only other mention is in (Deut. 14:7).


Leviticus 11:7 "And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he [is] unclean to you."


"The swine": Though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted. Here, again, the description is not according to anatomical analysis, but to ordinary appearance. The pig appears to be cloven-footed, and it would be misleading to give any other account of his foot in ordinary speech. But scientifically speaking, he has four toes. The prohibition of the use of swine's flesh does not arise from the fear of trichinosis or other disease, but from the disgust caused by the carnivorous and filthy habits of the Eastern pig.


Pork is very dangerous to eat, if it is not thoroughly cooked. At the time these ordinances were given, there was not nearly as good a way to cook meat as we have today. There was no refrigeration at all. I am sure God took all of this into account when He said do not eat swine. The swine has always been thought of as dirty, not only on the outside, but because of the food it ate as well.


Leviticus 11:8 "Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they [are] unclean to you."


Meaning, not of swine only, but of the camel, coney, and hare.


"And their carcass shall ye not touch": Which must not be understood of touching them in any sense. For then it would have been unlawful for a Jew to have rode upon a camel, or to take out and make use of hog's lard in medicine. But of touching them in order to kill them, and prepare them for food, and eat them. And indeed, all unnecessary touching of them is forbidden, lest it should bring them to the eating of them. Though perhaps it may chiefly respect the touching of them dead.


"They are unclean to you": One and all of them. For as this was said of each of them in particular, so now of all of them together. And which holds good of all wild creatures not named, to whom the description above belongs, and which used to be eaten by other nations.


The carcase of any dead animal should not be touched, because you have no idea what killed it, and many diseases can be spread by carelessly touching them. A swine wallows in the mud and from the physical point would certainly be unclean. This however, is speaking more of a defilement than a physical touch.


Leviticus 11:9 "These shall ye eat of all that [are] in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat."


"Fins ... scales": Much like the cud and hoof characteristics, the "no fins and scales" guidelines ruled out a segment of water life commonly consumed by ancient people.


Leviticus 11:10 "And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which [is] in the waters, they [shall be] an abomination unto you:"


Such as eels, lampreys, etc.


"Of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters": The former of these are interpreted by Aben Ezra and Ben Gersom of little fishes that have but a small body, and such as are created out of the waters. And the latter, of such as are produced of a male and female; or, as Maimonides explains it, the one signifies the lesser creatures, such as worms and horse leeches. The other greater ones, sea beasts, as sea dogs, etc.


"They shall be an abomination to you": Not only unclean, and so unfit to eat, but to be had in abhorrence and detestation, as being exceeding disagreeable and unwholesome. And, as a learned man observes, to these prohibited in general belong all those animals in lakes, rivers, or seas, which are of a slow motion. And which, because of the slow motion of their bodies, do not so well digest their food. And for that may be compared with four footed beasts that have but one belly, and so unwholesome as they.


Fish, such as bass and crappie (which have scales), prefer live bait when you are trying to catch them. On the other hand, catfish are scavengers and will eat anything. The slick skin fish, all are the fish who eat the garbage in the waters. I believe God made each fish for its own purpose. Now there are fish farms, where catfish are raised just for food and they are fed well and do not have to live like a scavenger. Perhaps in the restrictions of animals, fish, and fowl that God said was okay to eat, was so that we would not be eating things that would make us sick.


Leviticus 11:11 "They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination."


This is repeated again and again, to deter from the eating of such fishes, lest there should be any desire after them.


"Ye shall not eat of their flesh": Here mention is made of the flesh of fishes, as is by the apostle (1 Cor. 15:39). Aben Ezra observes, that their wise men say, this is according to the usage of words in those ages.


"But you shall have their carcasses in abomination": Not only abstain from eating them and touching them, but to express the utmost aversion to them.


Leviticus 11:12 "Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that [shall be] an abomination unto you."


Which is repeated that they might take particular notice of this law, and be careful to observe it, this being the only sign given.


"That shall be an abomination unto you": The Targum of Jonathan says, that not only the flesh of such fish, but the broth, and pickles made of them, were to be an abomination. This law of the Jews is taken notice of by Porphyry, who says, it is forbidden all the Jews to eat horse flesh, or fishes that lack scales, or any animal that has but one hoof.


I am thoroughly convinced that this is because they will eat just anything, and you might take a disease because of their practices of being a scavenger.


Leviticus 11:13 "And these [are they which] ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they [are] an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,"


"Among the fowls": Rather than unifying characteristics as in the hoof-cud and no fin-scales descriptions, the forbidden birds were simply named.


The ossifrage here, is a bird of the eagle or vulture species. The ospray was a sea eagle. All of these eat dead things.


Leviticus 11:14 "And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;"


Perhaps it might be better if the version was inverted, and the words be read, "and the kite, and the vulture, after his kind". And the last word is by us rendered the vulture in (Job 28:7). And very rightly, since the kite is not remarkable for its sight, any other than all rapacious creatures are. Whereas the vulture is to a proverb. And besides, of the vulture there are two sorts, as Aristotle says, the one lesser and whiter, the other larger and more of an ash color. And there are some that are of the eagle kind, whereas there is but one sort of kites. Though Ainsworth makes mention of two, the greater of a ruddy color, common in England. And the lesser of a blacker color, known in Germany, but produces no authority for it. However, these are both ravenous creatures. And of vultures he reports, that they will watch a dying man, and follow armies going to battle, expecting prey (see notes on Matt. 24:28).


Leviticus 11:15 "Every raven after his kind;"


The red raven, night raven, the water raven, river raven, wood raven, etc. This also includes crows, rooks, pies, jays, and jackdaws. The raven was with the Heathens sacred to Apollo, is a voracious creature, and so reckoned among unclean ones, and unfit for food. Nor does the care that God takes of these creatures, or the use he has made of them, contradict this (see Job 38:41).


Leviticus 11:16 "And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckoo, and the hawk after his kind,"


It is generally supposed the ostrich is denoted by the original word.


"The nighthawk": A very small bird, with which, from its nocturnal habits, many superstitious ideas were associated.


"The cuckoo": Evidently some other bird is meant by the original term, from its being ranged among rapacious birds. Dr. Shaw thinks it is the safsaf; but that, being a grass eater and gregarious bird, is equally objectionable. Others think that the sea mew, or some of the small sea fowl, is intended.


"The hawk": The Hebrew word includes every variety of the falcon family. As the goshawk, the jerhawk, the sparrow hawk, etc. Several species of hawks are found in Western Asia and Egypt, where they find inexhaustible prey in the immense numbers of pigeons and turtledoves that abound in those quarters. The hawk was held pre-eminently sacred among the Egyptians. And this, besides its rapacious disposition and gross habits, might have been a strong reason for its prohibition as an article of food to the Israelites.


Leviticus 11:17 "And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,"


Or horned owl, as some render it. The common barn owl, which is well known in the East. It is the only bird of its kind here referred to, although the word is thrice mentioned in our version.


"cormorant": Supposed to be the gull. (see on Deut. 14:17).


"The great owl": According to some, the Ibis of the Egyptians. It was well known to the Israelites, and so rendered by the Septuagint (Deut. 14:16; Isa 34:11). According to Parkhurst, the bittern, but not determined.


Leviticus 11:18 "And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,"


Found in great numbers in all the countries of the Levant. It frequents marshy places, the vicinity of rivers and lakes. It was held sacred by the Egyptians, and kept tame within the precincts of heathen temples. It was probably on this account chiefly that its use as food was prohibited. Michaelis considers it the goose.


"The pelican": Remarkable for the bag or pouch under its lower jaw which serves not only as a net to catch, but also as a receptacle of food. It is solitary in its habits and, like other large aquatic birds, often flies to a great distance from its favorite haunts.


"The gier eagle": Being here associated with waterfowl, it has been questioned whether any species of eagle is referred to. Some think, as the original name racham denotes "tenderness," "affection," the halcyon or kingfisher is intended. Others think that it is the bird now called the rachami, a kind of Egyptian vulture. Abundant in the streets of Cairo and popularly called "Pharaoh's fowl". It is white in color, The size like a raven, and feeds on carrion. It is one of the foulest and filthiest birds in the world. (see on Deut. 14:17).


Leviticus 11:19 "And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat."


A bird of benevolent temper and held in the highest estimation in all Eastern countries. It was declared unclean, probably, from its feeding on serpents and other venomous reptiles, as well as rearing its young on the same food.


"The heron": The word so translated only occurs in the prohibited list of food and has been variously rendered; the crane, the plover, the woodcock, and the parrot. In this great diversity of opinion nothing certain can be affirmed regarding it. Judging from the group with which it is classified, it must be an aquatic bird that is meant. It may as well be the heron as any other bird, the more especially as herons abound in Egypt and in the Hauran of Palestine.


"The lapwing, or hoopoe. Found in warm regions, a very pretty but filthy species of bird. It was considered unclean, probably from its feeding on insects, worms, and snails.


"The bat": The great or Ternat bat, known in the East, noted for its voracity and filthiness.


If I would closely investigate, I would probably say that perhaps no civilized peoples of the earth eat these fowls. These are all in the class of the vulture in their choice of food. God thought of everything when He made the earth, and He made some of these fowl to eat the dead animals on the highway. They are our clean-up crew if you will. We always try to see the spiritual lesson in all the verses we read. I see in this, that God wants His people to abstain from any and everything that might connect them with worldliness in any way. We all want to live in divine health and these Israelites were no different from us on this point. They were to be a separated people. One of the things that set them apart, was the fact that they rigidly conformed to the wishes of God on the matter of clean and unclean. They never questioned why. God said it was an abomination, so they left it alone. We believers in Christ need to have that type of separation to our LORD today. If Jesus said don't do it, don't. We want to know the reason for everything. True faith in Jesus Christ is when we learn to trust the Lord in everything, even if we do not understand why right now.


Leviticus 11:20 "All fowls that creep, going upon [all] four, [shall be] an abomination unto you."


Or rather "every creeping thing that flies". For what are designed are not properly fowls, but, as the Jewish writers interpret them, flies, fleas, bees, wasps, hornets, locusts, etc. So the Targum of Jonathan, Jarchi, Ben Gersom, and Maimonides.


"Going upon all four": That is, upon their four feet, when they walk or creep.


"These shall be an abomination to you": Not used as food, but detested as such.


Leviticus 11:21 "Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon [all] four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;"


This describes the locust (verse 22), which was allowed for food.


Which are after described and named.


"Of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four": Even though it is a creeping thing that flies and goes upon four feet, provided they are such.


"Which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth": There is a double reading of this clause. The textual reading is, "which have not legs".


The main thing we need to learn from this, is that all of this was under the Mosaic law. All things are clean for Christians, if we pray over the food before we eat it. Some of the things in this lesson are not too good for your health. We need to take care of our body. Our flesh should be controlled by our spirit. If we would study these laws, and watch our diet and take care of the body God gave us for our use on this earth, we could do much more for God. We need to realize that we are not our own. We have been bought with a price (Jesus' blood). Our body is the temple of the Holy Ghost.


1 Corinthians 6:19 "What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost [which is] in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?"


Leviticus Chapter 11 Questions


. In the beginning of this chapter, who did God speak to?


2. What laws are in this chapter?


3. In the Mosaic law, what 2 things were very important that were taught in this lesson?


4. What things are clean to eat under grace?


5. What 2 things sanctify our food?


6. Who did God tell to kill and eat things that were forbidden in the Mosaic law?


7. What God hath cleansed, call not thou ___________.


8. What does clovenfooted mean?


9. In these ordinances, God was telling His people what about animals?


10. What was the camel obviously made for?


11. What, about the camel, tells us that was its purpose?


12. What were animals made for?


13. How did God prepare the earth for man?


14. What does coney mean?


15. What disease caused the people to become cautious about what time of the year they ate wild rabbit?


16. If pork is eaten, not thoroughly cooked, what can happen to you?


17. Why should you not touch the dead carcase of an animal?


18. Which fish are scavengers?


19. What is the ossifrage?


20. What do the eagle, ossifrage, and the ospray have in common?


21. All of the fowls mentioned in verses 14 through 19 could be classed as vulture in their choice of _____.


22. God wants His people to abstain from what?


23. What is true faith in Jesus Christ?


24. What is the main lesson, for the believer, to be learned in studying these dietary laws?


25. We are not our own, we have been _________ ______ ___ _________.


26. Know ye not that your body is the _________ ___ _____ _______ ________.




Leviticus Chapter 11 Continued

Leviticus 11:21 "Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon [all] four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;" (This has been purposely repeated).


Leviticus 11:22 "[Even] these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind."


The four following ones, which seem to be no other than four sorts of locusts.


"The locust after his kind": This is the common locust, called by the name of Arbeh, from the great multiplication and vast multitudes of them. The phrase, "after his kind", and which also is used in all the following instances, signifies the whole entire species of them, which might be eaten.


"And the bald locust after his kind": Which in the Hebrew text is Soleam, and has its name, as Aben Ezra suggests, from its ascending rocks. But since locusts do not climb rocks, or have any peculiar regard for them, rather this kind of locust may be so called, from their devouring and consuming all that come in their way. From the Chaldee word which signifies to swallow, devour, and consume. But why we should call it the bald locust is not so clear, though it seems there were such, since the Jews describe some that have no baldness, which the gloss explains, whose head is not bald.


"And the beetle after his kind; which is another sort of locust called Chargol, and should not be rendered a beetle, for no sort of beetles are eatable. Nor have legs to leap withal, and so come not under the general description given of such flying, creeping things, fit to eat.


"And the grasshopper after his kind": This is another, and the fourth kind of the locust that might be eaten": Its name is Chagab, from the Arabic word Chaguba, "to vail", locusts vailing the light of the sun.


The difference between these several sorts is with them this: The Chagab has a tail, but no bunch; Arbeh neither bunch nor tail; and Soleam has a bunch, but not a tail; and Chargol has both bunch and tail. Maimonides reckons up eight sorts of them fit to eat; and these creatures were not only eaten by the Jews, but by several other nations.


I repeated verse 21 from the last lesson, to make a complete statement here. In the part of the world, where the Israelites lived, beetle, locust, and grasshopper were eaten regularly. These were not only eaten when they were in desperate situations, but were actually thought of as a delicacy. Personally, I have never eaten anything like this, but in many parts of the world today these are still served as a delicacy.


Leviticus 11:23 "But all [other] flying creeping things, which have four feet, [shall be] an abomination unto you."


Excepting the four sorts before mentioned, wherefore we rightly supply the word "other".


"Which have four feet; or more; the Vulgate Latin version adds, "only", but wrongly; for those that have more are unclean, and forbidden to be eaten, excepting those in the preceding verse. And most creeping things that fly have six feet, as the locusts themselves, reckoning their leaping legs into the number. Though it may be observed, that those creatures that have six feet have but four equal ones, on which they walk or creep. And the two foremost, which are longer, are as hands to them to wipe their eyes with, and protect them from anything that may fall into them and hurt them. They not being able to see clearly because of the hardness of their eyes, as Aristotle observes, and particularly it may be remarked of the fly, as it is by Lucian, that though it has six feet it only goes on four, using the other two foremost as hands. And therefore, you may see it walking on four feet, with something eatable in its hands. Now all such creatures that have four feet or more, excepting the above, shall be an abomination unto you; abhorred as food, and abstained from.


Verses 24-43: A person could also become "unclean" by touching a "carcase", or reptiles, or anything on which a reptile might fall. Cleansing was accomplished by washing in water, although some unclean items had to be broken. To be only "unclean until the even" (as against a week, as with Miriam (in Num. chapter 12), suggests a lighter offense.


This section deals with separation from other defiling things.


Leviticus 11:24 "And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even."


That is, for eating them; or should they eat them they would be unclean.


"Whosoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be unclean until the even": Not only he was unclean that ate them, but he that even touched their dead bodies was reckoned unclean. They might not go into the tabernacle, nor have conversation with men, nor eat of the holy things, which were forbiddeen men in any uncleanness. And though there is no mention of his washing himself, it may be understood, this being a short or concise way of speaking, as Aben Ezra observes. Who adds, that it was necessary that he should wash himself in water. Which was typical of washing and cleansing by the grace and blood of Christ, without which a man cannot be cleansed from the least sin, and pollution by it. And may signify that during the legal dispensation there was no proper cleansing from sin, until the evening of the world, when Christ came and shed his blood for the cleansing of it.


It seems that out of all the insects that fly and walk, just the ones of the locust family were permitted to be eaten. Come to think of it, who would want to eat a fly, or mosquito, or any of the other flying pests we spray to get rid of? There is nothing dirtier, in my opinion, than a roach. We could understand with no problem God restricting them in use for the table.


Leviticus 11:25 "And whosoever beareth [ought] of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even."


That carries them from one place to another, out of the camp, city, village, or house or field where they may lie. And though this is done with a good design, as being offensive or infectious, yet such a one;


"Shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even": From whence both Jarchi and Aben Ezra infer, that the pollution by hearing or carrying is greater than that by touching. Since such a man, so defiled, was obliged to wash his clothes as well as his body. So saints, that have contracted pollution by any manner of sin, are to wash their garments and make them white in the blood of the Lamb (Rev. 7:14).


Mosquitoes carry malaria, among other things, and you can see it would not be good to touch them. These ordinances are just good common sense rules that God has made to help man. We watch out for our children and try to keep them safe. God cares more for us than we do for our children. Why would He not give these ordinances to protect us from destroying ourselves?


Verses 26-27: These prohibited animals would include horses and donkeys, which have a single hoof, and lion and tigers, which have paws.


Leviticus 11:26 "[The carcases] of every beast which divideth the hoof, and [is] not clovenfooted, nor cheweth the cud, [are] unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean."


As the camel.


"Nor cheweth the cud": Though it may divide the hoof, as the swine. And on the other hand, such as may chew the cud, and yet not dividing the hoof, as the coney and hare. For the Scripture here, as Aben Ezra observes again, uses a short and concise way of speaking. These;


"Are unclean unto you": To be reckoned by them such, and neither to be eaten nor touched.


"Everyone that toucheth them shall be unclean": Until the evening; and obliged to washing, though not expressed. This is not to be understood of touching them while alive, as some Sadducees or Karaites' understand it, according to Aben Ezra. For camels, horses, mules, etc. might be, and were rode upon, and so touched. But this is speaking of them when dead, or their carcases, as is rightly supplied in the beginning of the verse. And the Jewish writers understand this of the flesh of the carcass only, not of the bones, horns, and hoofs, which, they say, do not defile, only the flesh. This is repeated from (Lev. 11:8).


Leviticus 11:27 " And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on [all] four, those [are] unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even."


Or "the palms" of his hands; meaning such creatures, whose feet are not divided into two parts. But into many, like the fingers of a hand, as apes, lions, bears, wolves, foxes, dogs, cats, etc.


"Among all manner of beasts that go on all four": This is added, to distinguish them from fowl, such as are clean. Who walk but on two feet, though their feet are divided into fingers or talons, and may be called hands on which they walk.


"These are unclean unto you": And as they might not be eaten, so neither touched, as follows:


"Whoso toucheth their carcass shall be unclean until the even" (see notes on Lev. 11:24).


Those animals that have paws, would be all animals from the cat family. This also includes dogs and wild animals like bear. These warnings just go into greater detail than those mentioned earlier. Some animals eat things like grass and do not eat flesh. Other animals do not eat anything but flesh. God made each animal for its specific use on this earth. We need to learn what God's purpose was for each animal and use them for that purpose only.


Leviticus 11:28 "And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they [are] unclean unto you."


Carries it upon any account, from place to place.


"Shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even": As he that bore the carcasses of any of the flying creeping things (Lev. 11:25).


"They are unclean to you": Even the carcasses of the one and of the other; and to all the Israelites, men, women, and children, as Aben Ezra observes.


As we said before, a carcase is the body of a dead animal. It died for some reason. You can catch a disease from an animal the same as from another human. This washing of the clothes is another common sense precaution. Any germs in the clothes probably would be lost after washing. In our day when so many dread diseases are around, we should be very careful to always wash our hands after coming in contact with animals, or even after we have shaken hands with a stranger. In the hospitals, nurses wear gloves when they are caring for patients to keep from catching the Aids virus and other dreaded diseases.


Leviticus 11:29 "These also [shall be] unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,"


These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth. As distinguished from those creeping things that fly, these having no wings. And which were equally unclean, neither to be eaten nor touched. Neither their blood, their skin, nor their flesh, as the Targum of Jonathan paraphrases it. And the Misnic doctors say that the blood of a creeping thing and its flesh are joined together. And Maimonides observes, that this is a fundamental thing with them, that the blood of a creeping thing is like its flesh. Which in Siphre (an ancient book of theirs), is gathered from what is said in (Lev. 11:29). "These shall be unclean", etc., hence the wise men say, the blood of a creeping thing pollutes as its flesh. The creeping things intended are as follow:


The weasel: however, all agree is rightly interpreted "the mouse"; which has its name in Hebrew from its being a waster and destroyer of fields. An instance of which we have in (1 Sam. 6:5; see notes). So that this sort may be chiefly intended, though it includes all others, who are distinguished by their colors, the black, the red, and the white. As a learned physician expresses it, eats almost everything, gnaws whatever it meets with, and, among other things, is a great lover of swine's flesh, which was an abomination to the Jews. Nor does it abstain from dung, and therefore it is no wonder it should be reckoned among impure creatures. and yet we find they were eaten by some people (see Isa. 66:17). Especially the dormouse; for which the old Romans made conveniences to keep them in, and feed them, and breed them for the table.


The last in this text, "the tortoise", means the land tortoise; it has its name from the shell with which it is covered, this word being sometimes used for a covered wagon (Num. 7:3). There are various kinds of them, as Pliny and other writers observe. A tortoise of the land kind is esteemed a very delicate dish. The Septuagint version renders it, the "land crocodile", which, is approved of by Bochart: and Leo Africanus says that many in Egypt eat the flesh of the crocodile, and affirm it to be of good savor. Its flesh is white and tender, and tastes like veal.


Leviticus 11:30 "And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole."


And the ferret. Whatever creature is here meant; it has its name in Hebrew from the cry it makes. And so the ferret has but one note in its voice, which is a shrill, but small, whining cry. It is used to drive rabbits out of their holes. The Septuagint and Vulgate Latin versions render the word by "mygale", the weasel mouse, or "mus areneus" of the Latins, the shrew or shrew mouse. It has something of the mouse and weasel, from whence it has its name in Greek, being of the size of the one, and the color of the other.


"And the chameleon": This is a little creature like a lizard, but with a larger and longer head. It has four feet, and on each foot three claws. Its tail is long; with this, as well as with its feet, it fastens itself to the branches of trees. Its tail is flat, its nose long, and made in an obtuse point. Its back is sharp, its skin plaited and jagged like a saw, from the neck to the last joint of the tail, and upon its head it hath something like a comb. In other respects, it is made like a fish; that is to say, it has no neck. What is said of its living on air, and changing color according to what it is applied, are now reckoned vulgar mistakes. But whatever creature is here meant, it seems to have its name in Hebrew from its strength, wherefore Bochart takes the "guaril" or "alwarlo" of the Arabs to be meant. Which is the stoutest and strongest sort of lizard, and is superior in strength to serpents, and the land tortoise, with which it often contends.


"And the lizard": So Jarchi interprets the word by a "lizard". It has a larger letter than usual in it, that this creature might be taken notice of, and guarded against as very pernicious, and yet with some people it is eaten. Calmet says, there are several sorts of lizards, which are well known. There are some in Arabia of a cubit long, but in the Indies there are some, they say, of twenty-four feet in length. Dr. Shaw says, that he was informed that more than 40,000 persons in Cairo, and in the neighborhood, live upon no other food than lizards and serpents. Though he thinks, because the chameleon is called by the Arabs "taitah", which differs little in name from "letaah", here; that therefore that, which is indeed a species of the lizard, might, with more propriety, be substituted for it.


"And the snail": So the word is rendered by Jarchi, on the place, and by Kimchi, and Philip Aquinas, and David de Pomis, in their lexicons. And these creatures, though forbidden to the Jews, yet are not only used for medicine, but also for food by many. Snails of several kinds, we are told, are eaten with much satisfaction in Italy and France. In Silesia they make places for the breeding of them at this day, where they are fed with turnip tops, etc. And carefully preserved for the market. And the Romans took care of them in the same manner. Bochart thinks a kind of lizard is meant, which lies in sand, called by the Arabs "chulaca", or "luchaca", because the word here used signifies, in the Talmudic language, sandy ground.


"And the mole": And so it is interpreted by Onkelos and Jarchi here, and by David de Pomis, and Philip Aquinas, in their lexicons. The same word is used for a certain sort of fowl, which we translate the "swan" (Lev. 11:18), but here of a creeping thing. Whatever is intended by it, it seems to have its name from its breath. Either in a contrary signification, if understood of the mole, which either holds its breath, or breathes not while underground. Or from its breathing more freely, wherefore Bochart takes it to be the "chameleon". Which, as Pliny says, is always gaping with its mouth for air. And it has been a vulgar notion, though a wrong one, that it lives upon it. The Targum of Jonathan interprets it by the "salamander"; now whoever ate any of the above eight creeping things, according to the Jewish canons, was to be beaten.


The only visible difference in these and the unclean we read about in the previous verses, is that these go on their belly, they do not fly. Many of the things in this category, such as snail are eaten today. These are not forbidden to those who speak the Word and pray over everything they eat. Food is cleansed by the Word and prayer.


Leviticus 11:31 "These [are] unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even."


Unfit for food, and not to be touched, at least when dead, as in the next clause. That is, these eight sorts of creeping things before mentioned, as the Targum of Jonathan expresses it, and these only, as Maimonides says.


"Whosoever doth touch them when they are dead shall be unclean until the even": For touching them while alive did not defile, only when dead. And this the Jews interpret, while they are in the case in which they died, that is, while they are moist. For, as Ben Gersom says, if they are so dry, as that they cannot return to their moisture, they do not defile. For which reason, neither the bones, nor nails, nor nerves, nor skin of these creeping things, defile. But, they say, while the back bone is whole, and the bones cleave to it, then a creeping thing is reckoned moist, and while it is so it defiles.


Leviticus 11:32 "And upon whatsoever [any] of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether [it be] any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel [it be], wherein [any] work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed."


Any of the above eight creeping things, that is, of their flesh. For as for their bones, nails, nerves, and skin, as before observed, being separated from them and dry, they do not defile.


"Whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack": Every wooden vessel, as the Targum of Jonathan; and all sorts of clothes, of woolen, linen, or silk, and all sorts of skins, excepting skins of sea beasts. For these, according to the Jews, received no pollution. And also sacks or sackcloth, made of goats' hair, and the like.


"Whatsoever vessel it be, wherein any work is done": Any tool or instrument made use of by any artificer in his trade, or any vessel wrought by him.


"It must be put into water": Dipped into it, even into forty seahs of water, according to the Targum of Jonathan. And which is to be understood, not of any working tool, or finished vessel only, but of any vessel of wood, raiment, skin, or sack, before mentioned.


"It shall be unclean until the even": Even though put into water and washed.


"So it shall be cleansed": In the above manner, by being put or dipped into water; or "afterwards", as the Septuagint, when it has been dipped and the even is come, and not before.


As we have mentioned throughout these lessons, these instructions were given for the benefit of man. These things mentioned here, are just very good health practices. The Israelites were not as well learned on germs and how they are passed on, as our society today. I believe these laws were like (rules for living a healthy life).


Leviticus 11:33 "And every earthen vessel, whereinto [any] of them falleth, whatsoever [is] in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it."


Any of the above eight reptiles, should they by chance fall into the midst an earthen vessel.


"Whatsoever is in it shall be unclean": If it only by falling touched the outside of it, it was not unclean; but if it fell into it, then whatever was contained in it was unclean. For, as Jarchi says, an earthen vessel does not pollute or receive pollution, but from the air of it, from its inside.


"And ye shall break it": Other vessels might be put into water and rinsed, and so be cleansed, but earthen vessels, being of no great value, were to be broken in pieces. An emblem this, as Ainsworth suggests, of the dissolution of our bodies, which are as earthen vessels, and of the destruction of sin thereby, and of the entire removal of it by death.


An earthen vessel could not be properly washed and freed from germs. The only thing to do to get rid of the germs then, would be to break it.


Leviticus 11:34 "Of all meat which may be eaten, [that] on which [such] water cometh shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every [such] vessel shall be unclean."


Which otherwise is lawful to eat and fit for food, whether herbs, or whether the flesh of clean creatures.


"That on which such water cometh shall be unclean": That is, such water as is put into an unclean vessel, become so by the fall of any unclean reptile into it. Wherefore such water poured out upon any sort of food, clean and fit to eat, or that is put into such water, to be dressed, it becomes unclean and unfit to eat. For the vessel, being unclean, defiles the water, and the water defiles the food. Jarchi interprets this of water in general, which coming upon anything eatable, prepares it for uncleanness. "We learn (says he) that no food is fit and prepared to receive defilement until water comes upon it once; and after it is come upon it once, it receives defilement for ever, even though it becomes dry." But the former seems to be the true sense.


"And all drink that may be drank in every such vessel shall be unclean": Whatever otherwise might be lawfully drank, yet being put into such a vessel, into which any unclean reptile was fallen, or being in it when it fell into it, became unclean and not fit to be drank. And those liquors which receive uncleanness, and make meats unclean by coming on them, according to the Misnic doctors, are these seven: dew, water, wine, oil, blood, milk, and honey.


This is speaking of the earthen vessel above. It is easy to see that anything in the earthen vessel that had been contaminated would also be contaminated, since you could not wash the earthen vessel and remove the germs.


Leviticus 11:35 "And every [thing] whereupon [any part] of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; [whether it be] oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: [for] they [are] unclean, and shall be unclean unto you."


Before the Scripture seems to speak of anyone of the reptiles perfect, that falling upon anything should pollute it. But here of any part of them, though ever so small, which should, through any accident, fall and light upon anything, even that would render it unclean and unfit for use.


Whether it be oven, or ranges of pots": The one to bake bread in, and the other to boil flesh in, as Aben Ezra observes.


"They shall be broken down": And no more made use of for baking and boiling.


"For they are unclean, and shall be unclean to you": Were made hereby unfit for use, and should not be used. The Jewish writers explain the phrase, "to you", meaning to your necessity. That which they had need of, but now should not use nor receive advantage from. Even "to you"; all men, women, and children, as Hiskuni interprets it. All this was ordered to create in them an abhorrence of these creatures, and to make them cautious of eating and touching them. And careful that they come not nigh, or touched, or fell upon anything, since it would give them so much trouble, as well as occasion loss.


This just shows how the germs can be carried from the carcase, and anything it touches would be contaminated. This is just stating again, that anything the dead body falls on, that cannot be washed up, has to be done away with. I remember when I was a child, if you went to see someone with a disease like typhoid, you had to go to a place away from everyone, take a bath and burn your old clothes you wore in the room where the patient was. There would be fresh clothes that had not been in contact with the disease to put on. I really believe this is what God is saying here. It has just been in the last few years, that Doctors and nurses wore masks in the operating room. Until modern cleanliness standards were incorporated into hospital regulations, many people died from infections, rather than the illness they were being doctored for.


Leviticus 11:36 "Nevertheless a fountain or pit, [wherein there is] plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean."


"A fountain or pit": The movement and quantity of water determined the probability of actual contamination. Water was scare also, and it would have been a threat to the water supply if all water touched by these prohibited carcasses were forbidden for drinking.


You can easily see why running water would wash the contamination away. Just to sum up this lesson, I would say a loving God cared so much for His children that He not only gave them laws to preserve their soul, but gave them laws of cleanliness to help them live healthy lives here on earth.


Leviticus Chapter 11 Continued Questions


1. What 3 insects from the locust family were permitted to be eaten?


2. What were they thought to be?


3. If you touched the carcase of an unclean thing, you were unclean until when?


4. What instructions were given about clothing when you touched the unclean thing?


5. What insect is well-known for carrying malaria?


6. What are these ordinances of cleanliness really?


7. Not only were they not to eat unclean animals, but were not to ________ them as well.


8. Name some of the animals that go upon their paws.


9. How do the eating habits of animals vary?


10. What should we learn about animals and their purpose?


11. What is a carcase?


12. What advantage is it to wash your clothes after you have touched a dead animal?


13. Why are so many nurses in hospitals wearing gloves today when they care for their patients?


14. Name the things in the mouse family forbidden to eat.


15. Why would an earthen vessel, that had been in contact something unclean, have to be broken?


16. Many years ago, when people visited those with very contagious diseases, they did what, with their clothing they had worn in the presence of the sick person?


17. Until modern cleanliness standards were installed in hospital rooms, what unexpected thing did many patients die of?


18. Why would a fountain or pit not be contaminated?


19. God loved His people so much that He not only gave them laws to preserve their soul, but laws of cleanliness, why?




Leviticus Chapter 11 Second Continued

Leviticus 11:37 "And if [any part] of their carcase fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it [shall be] clean."


That which is selected from the other seed in order to be sown, and which is laid by and laid up for that purpose. Should the carcass, or any part of the carcass of a creeping thing fall upon a heap of it, into a vessel in which it was put, as a dead mouse or the like.


"Yet it shall be clean": Be fit for use and sown in the earth; because being cast into the earth, and dying and quickening there, and then springing up again in stalk and ear, it would go through various changes before it became the food of man. The Targum of Jonathan describes it, such as is sown in its dryness. Or being dry; for if it was wetted it was unfit for use, as follows.


We know that when a seed falls into the ground, it dies. and the new plant which comes from the seed, can produce beautiful fresh products. It is amazing to me, that a seed can be planted in a place covered with fertilizer, and the fruit the plant brings forth is clean and sweet. There is a process of death and life here that mortal man does not understand. The reason the seed above is not unclean, is that it will never be eaten in its present form. The new seed that comes from this dead seed will be perfectly clean.


Leviticus 11:38 "But if [any] water be put upon the seed, and [any part] of their carcase fall thereon, it [shall be] unclean unto you."


Either accidentally or on purpose. Whether on sowing seed, and with water with which they water the field, as Aben Ezra interprets it. Or on seed used for food, by steeping it in water, as sometimes wheat is, and boiled. And whether it is water or the rest of the liquors, and whether they are put on the seed, or the seed falls into them, it matters not. As Jarchi says:


"And any part of their carcass fall thereon": That is, on the seed. Though Aben Ezra observes, some say upon the water. The Targum of Jonathan adds, in its moisture, or while it is wet. And so may be thought to be more susceptible of impurity from the touch of a dead reptile, or any part of it, and which would render it unfit for sowing or eating, until it was dried and cleansed. Yea, Jarchi says, if it falls thereon, even after it is dried:


"It shall be unclean unto you": Unfit for use.


If water got on the seed, it would probably cause it to sprout, and the contamination would be soaked into the seed.


Leviticus 11:39 "And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even."


Any clean beast, as the ox, sheep, goat, deer, etc. What, if rightly killed, is very lawful to eat of. But if it died of itself through any distemper, or was torn by the wild beasts, so the Targum of Jonathan:


"He that toucheth the carcass thereof shall be unclean until the even": Not the bones, nerves, horns, hoofs, or skin, as Jarchi observes. These might be handled, because some of them, at least, were wrought up into one instrument or another, by artificers, for use and service, but the flesh of them might not be touched. Whoever did touch it was ceremonially unclean, and might not go into the sanctuary, or have conversation with men, until the evening of the day in which this was done.


Leviticus 11:40 "And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even."


For though it might be eaten, if rightly killed, yet not if it died of itself, or was strangled, or torn to pieces by wild beasts.


"Shall wash his clothes": Besides his body, which even he that touched it was obliged to.


"And be unclean until the even": Though he and his clothes were washed, and he might not go into the court of the tabernacle, or have any concern with holy things, or conversation with men.


"He also that beareth the carcass of it": Removes it from one place to another, carries it to the dunghill, or a ditch, and there lays it, or buries it in the earth.


"Shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even": From whence, as before observed by the Jewish writers, uncleanness by bearing is greater than uncleanness by touching, since the former obliged to washing of clothes, not so the latter. So Jarchi here; and yet still was unclean until the evening, though he had washed himself in water, as Aben Ezra notes. And so says Jarchi, though he dips himself, he has need of the evening of the sun.


Even clean animals have a possibility of carrying diseases when they die, and in that case, the people would not be permitted to eat them. This then, has to be an animal that was killed on purpose for some reason or other. It would also be an animal where someone quickly cut its throat, so the blood would drain. Hebrews were forbidden to eat blood. Even if all these things were done, the person who was preparing the meat would get very nasty in the process. They would need to wash themselves and their clothes to get rid of the dirt they had gotten preparing it.


Leviticus 11:41 "And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth [shall be] an abomination; it shall not be eaten."


Nothing is called a creeping thing, as Jarchi says, but what is low, has short feet, and is not seen unless it creeps and moves. And "every creeping thing" comprehends, as Aben Ezra and Ben Gersom observe, the eight creeping things before mentioned (Lev. 11:29). And mention is made of them here, that they might not be eaten, which is not expressed before. And being described as creeping things "on the earth", is, according to Jarchi, an exception of worms in peas, beans, and lentiles. And, as others observe, in figs and dates, and other fruit. For they do not creep upon the earth, but are within the food. But if they go out into the air, and creep, they are forbidden.


This would include snakes, lizards, in fact all reptiles. These are such an abomination to God, that the devil was in the form of a snake in the garden of Eden. We will see in the next few verses from Genesis that God cursed the serpent above all other animals.


Genesis 3:14 "And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou [art] cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life:"


Satan (symbolized by the serpent), is the enemy of mankind and will be always.


Genesis 3:15 "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel."


We realize that the spiritual meaning of that Scripture is speaking of the followers of Jesus being the enemy of the devil and his crowd.


Leviticus 11:42 "Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon [all] four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they [are] an abomination."


Jarchi's paraphrase is, "whatsoever goeth", as worms and beetles, and the like to them, "upon the belly". This is the serpent; and to go upon the belly is the curse denounced upon it (Gen. 3:14). This and every such creature are forbidden to be eaten. As there are others who either have no feet, or what they have are so short, that they seem to go upon their belly. And yet, as horrible and detestable as the serpent is, it has been the food of some, and accounted very delicious.


"And whatsoever goeth upon all four": That is, whatsoever creeping thing. For otherwise there are beasts that go upon all four that are clean and fit to eat. But this is observed to distinguish this sort of creeping things from those that go upon their belly, and from those that have more feet, as in the next clause. Jarchi particularly instances in the scorpion.


"Or whatsoever hath mere feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth": Such as caterpillars, and particularly the Scolopendra, which the eastern people call Nedal. So Jarchi says, this is Nedal, a reptile which hath feet from its head to its tail, called Centipedes; and the Targum of Jonathan is, "from the serpent, to the Nedal or Scolopendra, which has many feet." Some of them, have seventy-two, thirty-six on a side, and others eighty-four; some fewer, but all have many.


"Them ye shall not eat, for they are an abomination": Abominable for food, and to be had in the utmost aversion.


As I said, this includes all vermin that crawl on their belly. It seems, to crawl on the belly, was part of the curse God put on the serpent.


Leviticus 11:43 "Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby."


With any creeping thing that flies in the air, excepting the four sorts of locusts (Lev. 11:22). And with any creeping thing in the waters (Lev. 11:10). Or with anything that creeps on the land, by eating any of them. Which being abominable for food, would make the eater of them so to God, he thereby breaking a command of his.


"Neither shall you make yourselves unclean with them": By touching and bearing them, as with dead beasts, so with dead flies and the like.


"That ye should be defiled thereby": In a ceremonial sense.


This is just a broader statement about not eating, or coming into contact with abominable things. Sometimes by association, they could become abominable themselves. It is broad enough to cover all the things in detail that were possibly not mentioned above.


Verses 44-45: Sanctify yourselves ... be Holy, for I am Holy": In all of this, God is teaching His people to live antithetically. That is, He is using these clean and unclean distinctions to separate Israel from other idolatrous nations who have no such restrictions, and He is illustrating by these prescriptions that His people must learn to live His way. Through dietary laws and rituals, God is teaching them the reality of living His way in everything. They are being taught to obey God in every seemingly mundane area of life, so as to learn how crucial obedience is. Sacrifices, rituals, diet, and even clothing and cooking are all carefully ordered by God to teach them that they are to live differently from everyone else. This is to be an external illustration for the separation from sin in their hearts. Because the Lord is their God, they are to be utterly distinct.


In verse 44, for the first time the statement "I am the Lord your God" is made, as a reason for the required separation and holiness. After this verse, that phrase is mentioned about 50 more times in this book, along with the equally instructive claim, "I am holy". Because God is holy and is their God, the people are to be holy in outward ceremonial behavior as an external expression of the greater necessity of heart holiness. The connection between ceremonial holiness carries over into personal holiness. The only motivation given for all these laws is to learn to be holy because God is holy. The holiness theme is central to Leviticus (see 10:3; 19:2; 20:7, 26; 21:6-8).


Leviticus 11:44 "For I [am] the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I [am] holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth."


Their Lord, and therefore had a right to enjoin them what laws he pleased concerning their food. And their God, their covenant God, and therefore would consult their good, and direct them to what was most proper, convenient, and wholesome for them.


"Ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy, for I am holy": That is, separate themselves from all other people, and be distinct from them, by using a different diet from theirs. As their Lord and God was different from all others, so called. And thus, by observing his commands, and living according to his will, and to his glory, they would be holy in a moral sense, as they ought to be. Who were under the peculiar care and notice of a holy God, and so highly favored by him. And particularly by attending to the above laws concerning food, they would be kept from mixing with, and having conversation with the Gentiles. And so be preserved from falling into idolatry, and continue a holy people. Serving and worshipping the Lord their God, and him only. And which seems to be a principal view as to religion, in delivering out the above commands.


"Neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth": Which is repeated to keep them at the utmost distance from these things, and to fill them with an aversion to them, that they might be careful to avoid them. There is no penalty annexed to these laws, but the breach of them making them unclean. Thereby they were debarred the use of the sanctuary, and of holy things, and of the conversation of men, for that day. But, according to the Jewish writers, such transgressions were punishable with stripes. Jarchi observes out of the Talmud, that he that eateth "putitha" (a small water reptile), was to be beaten four times. And if an ant or pismire five times, and if a wasp or hornet six times.


God repeats, in no uncertain terms, who He is and that the people will conform to His wishes. We have said numerous times, that sanctify means to set aside for God's purpose. They should be glad to do these things, that they might be called His. God expected no more from them, than He did of Himself. He said, I AM HOLY. He shows them the way they can be holy, and then tells them they must be holy. These people were being taught to be clean. It is important for the body to be clean, but the real cleanliness God was trying to teach them and us, is cleanliness of the spirit. Cleanliness of the inner man, was the real message. Man was made in the image of God, that He might fellowship with man. These Hebrews, here, were descended from Abraham in the flesh. Christians are descendants of Abraham through faith.


Galatians 3:29 "And if ye [be] Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise."


This is their Father, and our Father, giving instructions on how to live pleasing unto Him. Defile, in the verse above, means to pollute or make unclean. God wants His family to be a separated people, not caught up in the things of the world. There is a message in this for Christians, as well. We are to separate ourselves from the world. Let's take a look at what the Christians must be like for our Savior to come back for us.


Ephesians 5:27 "That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish."


Leviticus 11:45 "For I [am] the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I [am] holy."


He had brought them out of it, and was now bringing them on in the wilderness towards Canaan's land, in order to settle them there. And this is observed, to show what obligations they lay under to him to observe his commands. For since he had done such great things for them, it became them to be obedient to him in all things. And the more, since his end herein was, as he observes to them;


"To be your God": To make it appear that he was their God, and they were his special people, whom he had chosen for himself above all people upon the earth. That he was their King and their God, to protect and defend them, to provide for them, and take care of them, and bestow all good things on them proper for them.


"Ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy": Separate from all others as he was, living holy lives and conversations, agreeably to his will made known to them. In imitation of him who had chosen and called them to be his people. For, since holiness is his nature, it becomes them who are his house and family, his subjects and people.


This statement here could be because in Egypt, nearly every animal was worshipped. My own thoughts on this however, is that God has brought them out of the world, that they might serve Him. Egypt is a type of the world. He took them out of the world, that He might take them to the Promised Land. The very same thing is true with believers today. When we decide to follow Jesus, we are no longer of this world. We have no permanent dwelling place on this earth. To head for the Promised Land with God, we too must leave Egypt. Abraham was looking for a city made by God. We, too, must look for that city that cometh down from God out of heaven (New Jerusalem). Have you left Egypt (the world), yet? When you do, God will lead you to the Promised Land.


Leviticus 11:46 "This [is] the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth:"


Clean and unclean, what were to be eaten, and what not.


"And of the fowl" (Lev. 11:2), the unclean ones, which are particularly mentioned that they might be avoided. All others excepting them being allowed (Lev. 11:13).


"And of every living creature that moveth in the waters": All sorts of fish in the sea, rivers, ponds, and pools, such as have fins and scales. These were to be eaten, but, if they had neither, were forbidden (Lev. 11:9).


"And of every creature that creepeth upon the earth": Eight of which are mentioned particularly, which, when dead, defiled by touching. And all others are forbidden to be eaten (Lev. 11:29). Together with such creeping things that fly, excepting those that had legs above their feet to leap with (Lev. 11:20). This is a recapitulation of the several laws respecting them, though not in the exact order in which they are delivered in this chapter.


Leviticus 11:47 "To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten."


Whether of beasts, fish, fowl, and flying creeping things.


"And between the beast that may be eaten, and the beast that may not be eaten": The former clause takes in all in general, this instances in a particular sort of creatures. And the first mentioned of which, that might be eaten, are, that part the hoof, are cloven footed, and chew the cud. And that might not, that chew the cud, but divide not the hoof, or divide the hoof, but chew not the cud.


And now, by such like descriptions and distinctions of the creatures treated of, the Israelites would be able to make a difference between the one and the other, and know what was to be eaten, and what not.


The one thing we must see in these laws of the diet, God had the welfare of His people in mind when He gave these restrictions. Sometimes it seems as if the restrictions God has made are unfair; don't you believe it. God loves you. He loved you so much, He sent His son to save you. Every restriction is for our benefit.


GOD LOVES YOU, HE WANTS TO SAVE YOU, LET HIM!


Leviticus Chapter 11 Second Continued Questions


1. Why was the sowing seed clean, even though something unclean touched it?


2. What happens to a seed when it falls into the ground?


3. What did the author find amazing about plants, and where they grow?


4. There is a process of what here, that mortal man does not understand?


5. Why did the seed become unclean, if it got water on it?


6. What must immediately be drained from an animal, for it to be allowable for food?


7. Why is this so?


8. Verse 41 tells us that what is an abomination?


9. What are included in these creeping things?


10. What was cursed above all the animals?


11. What was the devil in the form of in the garden of Eden?


12. When God cursed the serpent to crawl on its belly, what else felt the same curse?


13. What are these Israelites cautioned of in Leviticus 11:43?


14. What does the word, sanctify, mean?


15. "Be ye _______, for I am _______."


16. What is the real cleanliness God is trying to teach here?


17. If ye are Christ's, then are ye ____________ seed.


18. What does defile mean?


19. We are to present ourselves a glorious church without what?


20. What was worshipped in Egypt?


21. God has brought them out of the world that they might ________ Him.


22. What must we believers do, before we can head for the Promised Land?


23. What is the one message we must see loud and clear in these dietary laws?


24. Every restriction is for whose benefit?





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Leviticus 12



Leviticus Chapter 12

Verses 1-8: This chapter involves purification after childbirth, for the mother was considered to "be unclean seven days; according to the days of the separation for her infirmity". The "separation for her infirmity" is a reference to her menstrual period (verse 5). This is more fully explained in 15:9-24. This legislation deals with the secretions that occur when giving birth, which made the mother unclean. So chapter 15, dealing with bodily secretions, provides the context for chapter 12. Verse 7 says she will "be cleansed from the issue of her blood". This is the third mention. Why should a woman become unclean by bearing children? Reproduction is essential to the survival of the human race, yet intercourse made both Israelite man and wife ceremonially unclean (15:18).


Why should any discharge make a person unclean? The Bible gives no explicit answer. Some say it was a reminder that sin is transmitted to each person at birth. Others say that every bodily discharge is a reminder of sin and death. It is also suggested that a bleeding or discharging body lacks wholeness and is therefore unclean. Loss of blood can lead to death, the antithesis of normal, healthy life. Anyone losing blood is at least in danger of becoming less that perfect and therefor unclean. In any case, the woman was to bring "a burnt offering" and "a sin offering" indicating her total dedication and surrender to God and the admission of her sin and need for a covering.


The theme of this chapter is not personal holiness but ritual purification for the mother. Nothing here teaches or implies that human sexuality is "dirty", that pregnancy is defiling, or that babies are impure. On the contrary, Scripture presents children as blessings from God (Psalms 113:9; 127:3-5; 128:3; Prov. 17:6; Matt. 19:14).


Leviticus 12:1 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


The laws in the preceding chapter were delivered both to Moses and Aaron, but what follows in this only to Moses. But inasmuch as the priest had a concern in it, it being his business to offer the sacrifices required by the following law, it was no doubt given to Moses, to be delivered to Aaron, as well as to the people. R. Semlai remarks, that as the creation of man was after that of the beasts, fowls, fishes, etc., so the laws concerning the uncleanness of men are after those relating to beasts, etc. And they begin with the uncleanness of a new mother. Because, as Aben Ezra observes, the birth is the beginning of man.


"Saying": As follows.


Leviticus 12:2 "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, If a woman have conceived seed, and born a man child: then she shall be unclean seven days; according to the days of the separation for her infirmity shall she be unclean."


For this law only concerned them, and not other nations of the world.


"If a woman have conceived seed": By lying with a man, and so becomes pregnant, and goes on with her pregnancy until she brings forth a child. The Jews from here gather, that this law respects abortions. That if a woman has conceived and miscarries, eighty one days after the birth of a female, and forty one after a male, she must bring her offering. But the law seems only to regard such as are with child, and proceed to the due time of childbirth, whether then the child is born alive or dead.


"And born a man child": Which is, generally speaking, not only matter of joy to the mother, but to the whole family (see John 16:21). Then she shall be unclean seven days; and be separate from all company. Except those whose presence is necessary to take care of her in her circumstances, and do what is proper for her. And even these became ceremonially unclean thereby. Even her husband was not permitted to sit near her, nor to eat and drink with her.


"According to the days of the separation for her infirmity shall she be unclean": The same number of days, even seven, she was unclean on account of childbirth, as she was for her monthly courses. Called here an infirmity or sickness, incident to all females when grown up, at which time they were separate from all persons. And the case was the same with a new mother (see Lev. 15:14).


This is a ceremonial uncleanness. In a difficult to understand way, this has to do with the birth of all who are believers. We have seen throughout these lessons in Leviticus, strong spiritual messages to the church. I see in this that we are all born in sin. We are not born lost as some teach, just uncommitted. We are born a fleshly man. This man of flesh is the first birth of man. Man is first flesh, then born of the spirit. To truly understand what I am saying here, a person must truly study (1 Corinthians beginning with chapter 15:42 and go to the end of the chapter). Just one reading will not implant this message, you must read it at least 6 times. Pray while you are reading, that the Holy Spirit reveals to you the meaning. The fact that this man and this woman had a child is not sin. God had instructed Adam and Eve to have children. God would not tell you to do something that was sin.


Genesis 1:28 "And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth."


This happened before the incident in the garden of Eden. The sin in the garden of Eden was disobeying God, not the fact that they had children. I will show you, again, that having children (if you are married), is not sin. God told Noah and his sons to be fruitful and multiply. I say, again, God would not tell them to do something that was sin.


Genesis 9:1 "And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth."


I could go on and on, but there is no need for that here, the point is made. Two married people producing children is not sin.


The fact that the woman who has a man child is unclean 7 days, has to do with the 7 days that Aaron and his sons were to wait at the door of the tabernacle to be acceptable to God. This was a time of consecration. The beautiful thing that happened when Mary conceived in her flesh of the Holy Spirit of God could never have been classified as sin, yet Jesus was not circumcised until the eighth day. Eight means new beginnings. This new beginning on the eighth day is like the day our spirit is born. Jesus' number is 8. He is our new beginning. This circumcision on the eighth day is like the new birth in Christ. Our new life begins the day we accept Christ as our Savior. The sign that an Israelite man has accepted God was on the eighth day when he is set aside for God by circumcision. The woman in the Bible is symbolic of the church. This seven days of separation is the same as the seven days of separation for the high priest. The church is born in us (we become the church), when we accept new life in Jesus. The seven (1000 year days), of the earth is also symbolized in this 7 days of consecration. We are waiting outside the door to heaven 7000 years, and then the new beginning is here.


Leviticus 12:3 "And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised."


"Eighth day": Joseph and Mary followed these instructions at the birth of Christ (Luke 2:21).


"Circumcised": The sign of the Abrahamic Covenant (Gen. 17:9-14), was incorporated into the laws of Mosaic cleanness (compare Rom. 4:11-13). For a discussion on circumcision (see notes on Jer. 4:4).


Jesus was circumcised on the eighth day.


Luke 2:21 "And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name was called JESUS, which was so named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb."


The baby Jesus was circumcised on the eighth day and named Jesus. He was not dedicated in the temple until the 40th day. We will see this as we go on.


Leviticus 12:4 "And she shall then continue in the blood of her purifying three and thirty days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purifying be fulfilled."


That is, so many more, in all forty. For though at the end of seven days she was in some respects free from her uncleanness, yet not altogether. But remained in the blood of her purifying, or in the purifying of her blood, which was more and more purified, and completely at the end of forty days. So with the Persians it is said, a new mother must avoid everything for forty days. When that time is passed, she may wash and be purified; and which perhaps Zoroastres, the founder of the Persian religion, at least the reformer of it, being a Jew.


"She shall touch no hallowed thing": As the tithe, the heave offering, the flesh of the peace offerings, as Aben Ezra explains it, if she was a priest's wife.


"Nor come into the sanctuary": The court of the tabernacle of the congregation, or the court of the temple, as the same writer observes. And so with the Greeks, a pregnant woman might not come into a temple before the fortieth day, that is, of her delivery.


"Until the days of her purifying be fulfilled": Until the setting of the sun of the fortieth day. On the morrow of that she was to bring the atonement of her purification, as Jarchi observes (see notes on Lev. 12:6).


The issue of blood that women have every month, and at childbirth is a cleansing for their bodies. No woman should think of herself as being a nothing, because this happens to her. There is no life without the shedding of blood. Women are chosen of God to pro-create life. Husbands and wives are one in God's sight. The creation of life in God's plan, is beautiful. The new life, is a blessing to the husband and wife, but is also a blessing for God. The natural functions of the body are one of the great mysteries of life. Every time a new baby is born, it lets us know God has not given up on mankind. This 40 day period of separation from the holy things is for cleanliness' sake and just simply because God said to do it. Forty throughout the Bible is a time of testing. Perhaps this is the time the woman should take before beginning to function in her usual role. Jesus was carried to the temple on the 40th day for his dedication.


Luke 2:22 "And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present [him] to the Lord;"


The natural function of the woman's body has usually stopped by the 40th day after a male child is born. and it would be alright for her to come back to the temple. We will find in another lesson that anything that could be construed as uncleanness, would keep the person from attending services in the sanctuary.


Leviticus 12:5 "But if she bear a maid child, then she shall be unclean two weeks, as in her separation: and she shall continue in the blood of her purifying threescore and six days."


"Two weeks ... threescore and six days": Apparently mothers were unclean twice as long (80) days after the birth of a daughter as a son (40 days), which reflected the stigma on women for Eve's part in the Fall. This stigma is removed in Christ (see notes on 1 Tim. 2:13-15).


The time for the cleansing for the birth of a female child is definitely twice as long. Boy babies were circumcised on the 8th day, which as we said in a previous verse, was a sign of accepting God. Since a girl baby is not circumcised, then the purification would be different also. To say that this longer time for purification was because girls were more sinful is slightly ridiculous. With God there is no male or female. The only time there is a gender is for the procreation of life on this earth. As we have said over and over in these lessons, the woman symbolizes the church. The 40 days for the purification of having a man child symbolized the 40 years wandering in the wilderness on the way to the Promised Land. The church of Jesus Christ was not established on the way to the Promised Land. Could the 80 days required for the female child symbolize the 40 years in the wilderness to establish a people of God, and then the 40 days Jesus ministered on the earth after He resurrected from the tomb, to establish the church? The church of the Lord Jesus Christ was not established during the wilderness wanderings, but that had to be the beginning. The church was truly launched when Jesus returned to the Father in heaven and promised to send the comforter. Jesus was seed of the woman, and not of the man.


Genesis 3:15 "And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel."


There was the age of the law (physical Israel), then there was the age of grace (spiritual Israel). The time of testing for the physical house was 40. The time of testing for the spiritual house was 40. Forty and 40 make 80. There could not have been grace, except it had been preceded by law. Then the woman (church), takes 80 days for purification, 40 days for the law and 40 days for grace.


Leviticus 12:6 "And when the days of her purifying are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtledove, for a sin offering, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest:"


"Burnt offering ... sin offering": Thought the occasion was joyous, the sacrifices required were to impress upon the mind of the parent the reality of original sin and that the child had inherited a sin nature. The circumcision involved a cutting away of the male foreskin, which could carry infections and diseases in its folds. This cleansing of the physical organ so as not to pass on disease (Jewish women have historically had the lowest incidence of cervical cancer), was a picture of the deep need for cleansing from depravity, which is most clearly revealed by procreation, as men produce sinners and only sinners. Circumcision points to the fact that cleansing is needed at the very core of a human being, a cleansing God offers to the faithful and penitent through the sacrifice of Christ to come.


These offerings were not for direct sin, but if you will, inherited sin of the flesh. This sin is really not this mother's sin, but Eve's sin, which was not a deed but an inheritance. This burnt offering was as devotion to God. The sin involved was not her own sin, but sinful nature of all of humanity, until the new birth in Christ. Jesus was dedicated to God on the 40th day of His mother's purification.


Luke 2:22 "And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present [him] to the Lord;"


Leviticus 12:7 "Who shall offer it before the LORD, and make an atonement for her; and she shall be cleansed from the issue of her blood. This [is] the law for her that hath born a male or a female."


Upon the altar of burnt offering.


"And make an atonement for her": For whatsoever sin in connection with or that attended childbearing. As typical of the atonement by Christ both for sin original and actual.


"And she shall be cleansed from the issue of her blood": In a ceremonial sense, and according to that law be pure and clean.


"This is the law for her that hath born a male or a female": Enjoined her, and to be observed by her. And though now with the rest of the ceremonial law it is abolished. Yet it has this instruction in it; that it becomes women in such circumstances to bring the freewill offerings of their lips. Their sacrifices of praise, and in a public manner signify their gratitude and thankfulness for the mercy and goodness of God vouchsafed to them. In carrying them through the whole time of childbearing, and saving them in the perilous hour.


As I said before, the uncleanness was of a ceremonial nature, rather than of a spiritual nature. We will get into the issue of blood in another lesson.


Leviticus 12:8 "And if she be not able to bring a lamb, then she shall bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons; the one for the burnt offering, and the other for a sin offering: and the priest shall make an atonement for her, and she shall be clean."


"Turtledoves ... pigeons": Compare (Lev. 1:14-17; 5:7-10). These were the offerings of Joseph and Mary after Christ's birth (compare Luke 2:24), when they presented Jesus as their firstborn to the Lord (Exodus 13:2; Luke 2:22). Birds, rather than livestock, indicated a low economic situation, though one who was in total poverty could offer flour (5:11-14).


The mother of Jesus brought two turtledoves and 2 young pigeons.


Luke 2:24 "And to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons."


To sum this up, we see the birth of all of Christendom in this lesson through Jesus Christ our Lord.


Leviticus Chapter 12 Questions


1. Who did God give the law to, about the purification of the woman after childbirth?


2. How many days shall she be unclean after the birth of a son?


3. What kind of uncleanness is this?


4. We have seen strong spiritual messages to the __________ in Leviticus.


5. We are born in _____, not born _______.


6. Man is first flesh, then _________.


7. Where should you read over and over to get the full lesson on the flesh and spirit of man?


8. How do we know that the man and woman did not sin in having a child?


9. God would not tell you to do something that was _____.


10. What was the sin in the garden of Eden?


11. Two married people having children is not _____.


12. What parallel does the seven days of uncleanness represent?


13. Jesus was circumcised on what day?


14. What does the number eight mean?


15. This circumcision on the eighth day is like what in Christ?


16. Who is our new beginning?


17. The woman, in the Bible, is symbolic of what?


18. When is the church born in us?


19. We have been waiting outside the door to heaven how long?


20. What day was Jesus named?


21. What day was Jesus dedicated in the temple?


22. How many days could the mother not enter the temple after the male child was born?


23. What is the purpose of the issue of blood that women have?


24. What is the number 40 symbolic of?


25. What was the difference in the time of separation for a maid child and a male child?


26. The woman symbolizes what?


27. The 40 days of purification for a male child symbolized what?


28. When was the church of the Lord Jesus Christ truly launched?


29. Why did it take 80 symbolic days for the church of the Lord Jesus Christ to be launched?


30. What type of sin was this offering in the temple for?





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Leviticus 13



Leviticus Chapter 13

Verses 1-59: Actually chapters 13 and 14 go together. They have a threefold division, each introduced by "The Lord spake unto Moses [and Aaron]" (13:1; 14:1, 33), and closed by "This is the law for ..." (13:59; 14:32, 54). Serious skin disease in men and clothing is dealt with (in 13:1-59). It details its diagnosis and treatment. Ritual cleansing after the cure of serious skin disease is described (in 14:1-32). And (14:33-57), relates to serious skin disease in houses: diagnosis, treatment, and cleansing. The Hebrew word translated "leprosy" comes from a root meaning "to become diseased in the skin", and is a generic term for severe skin disorders, including Hansen's disease, rather than a specific description. In Old Testament usage, it was extended to include mold or mildew in fabrics, as well as mineral eruptions on the walls of buildings, and possibly dry rot in the fabric of such structures. The Hebrew is technical in character, and the passing of time has obliterated the original meaning of the terms used. The individual under consideration was to "be brought unto Aaron the priest", and if indeed infected he was to be pronounced "unclean". A man pronounced unclean by the priest then began a terrible separation, for he would "dwell alone; without the damp" (compare 2 Kings 7:3), which was actually a living death. He was cut off from spiritual fellowship with the covenant people, and in a real sense would be without hope and without God in the world.


I will tell you right from the beginning, there are 2 kinds of leprosy. One leprosy (the physical), you can see with your eyes, but there is also a leprosy of the spirit. Even though you cannot see the leprosy of the spirit, it does not make it any less deadly.


Verses 1-8: The infected person was isolated for as long as two weeks to allow the symptoms time to improve.


Leviticus 13:1 "And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron, saying,"


Aaron is addressed again, though left out in the preceding law, because the laws concerning leprosy chiefly concerned the priests, whose business it was to judge of it, and cleanse from it. And so, Ben Gersom observes, mention is made of Aaron here, because to him and his sons belonged the affair of leprosies. To pronounce unclean or clean, to shut up or set free. And, as Aben Ezra says, according to his determination were all the plagues or strokes of a man, who should be declared clean or unclean.


Leviticus 13:2 "When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh [like] the plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests:"


"Bright spot": This probably refers to inflammation.


"Leprosy": This is a term referring to various ancient skin disorders that were sometimes superficial, sometimes serious. It may have included modern leprosy (Hansen's disease). The symptoms described (in verses 2, 6, 10, 18, 30 and 39), are not sufficient for a diagnosis of the clinical condition. For the protection of the people, observation and isolation were demanded for all suspected cases of what could be a contagious disease. This biblical leprosy involved some whiteness (verse 3; Exodus 4:6), which disfigured its victim but did not disable him. Naaman was able to exercise his functions as a general of Syria's army, although a leper (2 Kings 5:1, 27). Both Old and New Testament lepers went almost everywhere, indicating that this disease was not the leprosy of today that cripples. A victim of this scaly disease was unclean as long as the infection was partial. Once the body was covered with it, he was clean and could enter the place of worship (see verses 12-17). Apparently, the complete covering meant the contagious period was over. The allusion to a boil (verses 18-28), with inflamed or raw areas and whitened hairs may refer to a related infection that was contagious. When lepers were cured by Christ, they were neither lame nor deformed. They were never brought on beds. Similar skin conditions are described (in verses 29-37 and verses 38-44), concerning some inflammation from infection. The aim of these laws was to protect the people from disease, but more importantly, to inculcate into them by vivid object lessons how God desired purity, holiness, and cleanness among His people.


This has great spiritual thoughts in it. If this illness is just physical, why do they not take the person with it to a physician? It is very unusual to take a person to the high priest, before you take the patient to a doctor for a physical problem. The sons of Aaron, as well as Aaron, were to judge the matter of whether the person had leprosy. It seemed that any raw sore, such as a boil, must be examined to determine whether or not it was leprosy.


Leviticus 13:3 "And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and [when] the hair in the plague is turned white, and the plague in sight [be] deeper than the skin of his flesh, it [is] a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean."


Whether it be a swelling, scab, or a bright spot that appears, and judge of it by the following rules, and none but a priest might do this.


"And when the hair in the plague is turned white": It arising in a place where hair grows, and which hair is not naturally white, but of another color. But changed through the force of the plague. And there were to be two hairs at least, which were at first black, but turned white, so Jarchi and Ben Gersom. And these hairs, according to the Misnah, must be white at bottom; if the root (or bottom) is black, and the head (or top) white, he is clean. If the root white, and the head black, he is defiled. For hairs turning white is a sign of a disorder, of weakness, of a decay of nature, as may be observed in ancient persons.


"And the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh": Appears plainly to view to be more than skin deep, to have corroded and eat into the flesh below the skin.


"It is a plague of leprosy": When these two signs were observed, hair turned white, and the plague was more than skin deep, then it was a plain case that it was the leprosy of which see notes on (Matt. 8:2; 8:3; Luke 5:12). This was an emblem of sin, and the corruption of nature, which is an uncleanness. And with which every man is defiled, and which renders him infectious, nauseous, and abominable. And of which he is only to be cured and cleansed by Christ, the great High Priest, through his blood, which cleanses from all sin. The above signs and marks of leprosy may be observed in this. The white hair denoting a decay of strength (see Hosea 7:9). May be seen in sinners, as in the leper, who are without moral and spiritual strength to keep the law of God. To do anything that is spiritually good, to regenerate, renew, convert, and sanctify themselves, or to bring themselves out of the state of pollution, bondage, and misery, in which they are. And, like the leprosy, sin lies deep in man. It is in his flesh, in which dwells no good thing, and in which there is no soundness. It does not lie merely in outward actions, but it is in the heart, which is desperately wicked. For the inward part of man is very wicked.


"And the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean": And so, should be obliged to rend his clothes, make bare his head, put a covering on his upper lip, and cry, unclean, unclean. He must dwell alone without the camp, and at a proper time bring the offering for his cleansing, and submit to the several rites and ceremonies prescribed (Lev. 13:45).


Notice, that leprosy as well as sin, is a disease of the flesh. When this sin or disease has gone into the person, the priest declares them unclean. One of the requests we all make to Jesus, is wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow, or (take my spiritual leprosy).


Leviticus 13:4 "If the bright spot [be] white in the skin of his flesh, and in sight [be] not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white; then the priest shall shut up [him that hath] the plague seven days:"


The Targum of Jonathan is, white as chalk in the skin of his flesh": But other Jewish writers make the whiteness of the bright spot to be the greatest of all, like that of snow (see notes on Lev. 13:2).


"And in sight be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white": Though it be a bright spot, and be very white, yet these two marks not appearing, it cannot be judged a leprosy, at most it is only suspicious. Wherefore:


"Then the priest, shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days": In whom the bright spot is, and of whom there is a suspicion of the plague of leprosy, but it is not certain. And therefore, in order to take time, and get further knowledge, the person was to be shut up from all company and conversation for the space of seven days. By which time it might be supposed, as Ben Gersom observes, that the case and state of the leprosy (if it was one), would be altered. And Aben Ezra remarks, that most diseases change or alter on the seventh day.


We know that 7 means spiritually complete. It is easy to understand, just as Aaron and his son's had to wait at the door 7 days to be ceremonially clean for work in the sanctuary, these people wait 7 days to be declared physically clean. This seven days, this person is neither declared to have leprosy nor to be clean. When Aaron waited at the door 7 days, he was neither high priest, nor released to go into the world. In both cases, this is a period of waiting to be accepted.


Leviticus 13:5 "And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and, behold, [if] the plague in his sight be at a stay, [and] the plague spread not in the skin; then the priest shall shut him up seven days more:"


In the day, and not in the night, as Maimonides, but not on the seventh day. If it happened to be on the Sabbath, then it was put off till after it. And, according to the Jewish canons, they do not look upon plagues in the morning, nor in the evening, nor in the middle of a house, nor on a cloudy day, nor at noon, but at the fourth, fifth, eighth, and ninth hours.


"And, behold, if the plague in his sight be at a stay": It appears to the priest, according to the strictest view he can take of it, that it is in the same state and condition it was, neither better nor worse.


"And the plague spread not in the skin": Is not greater or larger than it was, though not less.


"Then the priest shall shut him up seven days more": Such abundant care was taken, lest after all it should prove a leprosy.


Leviticus 13:6 "And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and, behold, [if] the plague [be] somewhat dark, [and] the plague spread not in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: it [is but] a scab: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean."


On the second seventh day, at the end of a fortnight from his being first presented to him, and shut up.


"And, behold, if the plague be somewhat dark": The spot be not so bright, or so white as it was at first. Though Aben Ezra observes, that indeed many wise men say, that is as signifying dark, and the testimony or proof they bring is (Gen. 27:1). But according to my opinion, adds he, the word is the reverse of to spread. And the sense is, if the plague does not spread itself in another place. And so some translators render it "contracted", or "contracts itself": and this seems best to agree with what follows.


"And the plague spread not in the skin": But is as it was when first viewed, after waiting fourteen days, and making observations on it.


"The priest shall pronounce him clean": That is, from leprosy, otherwise there was an impure disorder on him, a scabious one.


"It is but a scab": Which is the name, Jarchi says, of a clean plague or stroke, that is, in comparison of the leprosy. Otherwise such cannot be said with any propriety to be clean. Ben Gersom better explains it, it is a white scab, but not of the kind of leprosy, although it is found as the whiteness of the bright spot. But there are not seen in it the signs of leprosy, the hair is not turned white, nor has the plague increased.


"And he shall wash his clothes, and be clean": For seeing he was obliged to be shut up, as Jarchi observes, he is called unclean, and stood in need of dipping. That is, his body and his clothes into water. So, the people of God, though they are justified by the righteousness of Christ, and are pronounced clean through it. Yet since they have their spots and scabs, they have need to have their conversation garments continually washed in the blood of the Lamb.


In some very unusual way, this first 7 days of waiting here, symbolizes the time of the law. The 14 days; the two periods of 7 days, symbolize the waiting for grace to come. Notice at the end of this 14 days, he is washed and made whole. When we are washed in the blood of the Lamb, we are made every whit whole. Our sin (leprosy), is gone.


Leviticus 13:7 "But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin, after that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest again:"


Or "in spreading spread". Spreads, and proceeds to spread more and more.


"After that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing": Even after he had been viewed upon the first presentation of him to him, and after he had been twice seen by him by the end of two weeks, in which he was shut up. And after he had been pronounced clean, and had washed his clothes for his purification.


"He shall be seen of the priest again": Either he shall go to him of himself, or be brought to him, to be reviewed and pass under afresh examination.


Leviticus 13:8 "And [if] the priest see that, behold, the scab spreadeth in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it [is] a leprosy."


Is not at a stay, as when he looked at it a second and third time.


"Then the priest shall pronounce him unclean": A leprous person; to be absolutely so, as Jarchi expresses it. And so, obliged to the birds (to bring birds for his cleansing), and to shaving, and to the offering spoken of in this section, as the same writer observes.


"It is a leprosy": It is a clear and plain case that it was one, and no doubt is to be made of it, it is a spreading leprosy. As sin is; it spreads itself over all the powers and faculties of the soul, and over all the members of the body. And it spreads more and more in every stage of life, unless and until grace puts a stop to it.


We see in this a hopeless situation. The priest tried, but there was no change.


Leviticus 13:9 "When the plague of leprosy is in a man, then he shall be brought unto the priest;"


He has all the signs of it, and it is pretty manifest both to himself and others that it is upon him.


"Then he shall be brought unto the priest": By his friends and neighbors, if he is not willing to come of himself. A sinner insensible of the leprosy of sin, and of his unclean and miserable state through it, has no will to come to Christ the great High Priest for cleansing. But one that is sensible of it, and of Christ's ability to help and cleanse him, will come freely and gladly, and importunately seek to him for it. Though indeed such a one is brought by powerful and efficacious grace to him, yet not against, but with his full will (see John 5:40; compare with Matt. 8:1).


Leviticus 13:10 "And the priest shall see [him]: and, behold, [if] the rising [be] white in the skin, and it have turned the hair white, and [there be] quick raw flesh in the rising;"


Look at him, and closely and narrowly inspect and examine his case.


"And, behold, if the rising be white in the skin; this is another appearance of the leprosy. The preceding was a bright spot, and the scab of it; but this a rising or white swelling in the skin, as white as pure wool, as the Targum of Jonathan.


"And it have turned the hair white": To the whiteness of an egg shell, or the film of it, as the same Targum. That is, hath turned the hair of another color, into white which was before black.


"And there be quick raw flesh in the rising": Or swelling; or "the quickening" or "quickness of live flesh" either such as we call proud flesh, which looks raw and red. Or sound flesh, live flesh being opposed to that which is mortified and putrid. For either the hair turning white, or quick raw flesh, one or the other, and one without the other was a sign of leprosy, so Jarchi observes. Even this is a sign of uncleanness, the white hair without the quick flesh, and the quick flesh without the white hair. This may seem strange that quick and sound flesh should be a sign of the leprosy and its uncleanness. Though it should be observed, it is such as is in the rising or swelling. And in things spiritual, it is a bad sign when men are proud of themselves and have confidence in the flesh. When in their own opinion, they are whole and sound and need no physician. When they trust in themselves that they are righteous, and boast of and have their dependence on their own works. He appears to be in the best state and frame that cried out as David did, that there is "no soundness in his flesh" (Psalm 38:3).


Leviticus 13:11 "It [is] an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean, and shall not shut him up: for he [is] unclean."


An inveterate one, of long standing and continuance, an obstinate one, not to be cured by medicine. As this sort of leprosy was, and therefore the person was sent not to a physician, but to the priest. The leprosy of sin is an old disease, brought by man into the world with him, and continues with him from his youth upwards, and nothing but the grace of God and blood of Christ can remove it.


"And the priest shall pronounce him unclean, and shall not shut him up": There being no doubt at all of it being a leprosy. And of his uncleanness, and therefore no need to shut him up for further examination, but to turn him out of the camp till his purification was over.


"For he is unclean": In a ceremonial sense, and was obliged to the law for cleansing, such as after given.


In diseases, you would call this a chronic disease, which is past the contagious stage. In the spiritual realm, this would be a habitual sinner. By this time, the person is so hideous from the disease (sin), that no one will come near them anyway. There is no need to lock them up. I am not saying in this that leprosy is caused by sin. I do not know. I am saying that leprosy in the flesh is symbolic of leprosy of sin in the inner man, in his spirit.


Leviticus 13:12 "And if a leprosy break out abroad in the skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of [him that hath] the plague from his head even to his foot, wheresoever the priest looketh;"


Or, if flowering it flowers. The man that has it on him looks like a plant or tree covered with white flowers, being spread all over him in white swellings, bright spots or scabs, as it follows.


"And the leprosy cover all the skin of him that hath the plague, from his head even to his foot": Such a one as the leper was that came to Christ for healing, said to be full of leprosy (Luke 5:12). And such in a mystical sense is every sinner, whether sensible of it or not. Even from the Crown of the head to the sole of the foot, full of the wounds, bruises, and putrefying sores of sin (Isa. 1:6).


"Wheresoever the priest looketh": That is, he cannot look anywhere upon any part of him but he sees the signs of the leprosy on him. And from whence the Jewish writers gather, that a priest that inspects leprous persons ought to have a clear sight, and to have both his eyes, and that the inspection should not be made in a dark house.


Leviticus 13:13 "Then the priest shall consider: and, behold, [if] the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce [him] clean [that hath] the plague: it is all turned white: he [is] clean."


Look upon it, and well weigh the matter in his own mind, that he may make a true judgment and pronounce a right sentence.


"And, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh": From head to foot, so that no quick, raw, or sound flesh appear in him.


"He shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague": Not clean from a leprosy he is covered with; but that he is free from pollution by it, and under no obligation to bring his offering, or to perform, or have performed on him any of the rites and ceremonies used in cleansing of the leper.


"It is all turned white": His skin and flesh with white bright spots, scabs and swellings, and no raw and red flesh appears.


"He is clean": In a ceremonial sense. This may seem strange, that one that had a bright spot, or a white swelling, or a scab that spreads, a single one of these, or here and there one, should be unclean. And yet, if covered over with them, should be clean. The reason in nature is, because this shows a good healthful inward constitution, which throws out all its ill humors externally, whereby health is preserved. As we see in persons that have the measles or smallpox, or such like distempers, if they stick in the skin, and only here and there one rises up in a tumor, and to a head, it is a bad sign. But if they come out kindly and well, though they cover the whole body, things are very promising. The mystical or spiritual meaning of this is, that when a man sees himself to be a sinful creature, all over covered with sin, and no part free. And disclaims all righteousness of his own to justify him before God, but wholly trusts to, and depends upon the grace of God for salvation. And the righteousness of Christ for his acceptance with God. He becomes clean through the grace of God and the blood and righteousness of Christ.


The only way to explain this, is with a statement from the New Testament.


Luke 5:12-13 "And it came to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold a man full of leprosy: who seeing Jesus fell on [his] face, and besought him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean." "And he put forth [his] hand, and touched him, saying, I will: be thou clean. And immediately the leprosy departed from him."


I believe the statement (full of leprosy), is the connection between the two. The only help for someone full of sin, or leprosy, is for Jesus to wash them and make them whole.


Leviticus 13:14 "But when raw flesh appeareth in him, he shall be unclean."


Between the white spots, scabs, or swellings, or in the midst of them.


"He shall be unclean": Be pronounced unclean, and be subject to all the prescriptions of the law concerning lepers.


Leprosy is not a very contagious disease, but is contagious when the sore is open and running.


Leviticus 13:15 "And the priest shall see the raw flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean: [for] the raw flesh [is] unclean: it [is] a leprosy."


Or when he sees it, the person being brought to him to be viewed.


"And pronounce him to be unclean": Or shall pronounce him to be unclean.


"For the raw flesh is unclean": Made a man so in a ceremonial sense (see notes on Lev. 13:10).


"It is a leprosy": Wherever any quick raw flesh appears in a swelling.


It is a horrible task, but it is the duty of the leader of the church to point out sin to their members. Just as the leprosy here, sin must be dealt with.


Leviticus 13:16 "Or if the raw flesh turn again, and be changed unto white, he shall come unto the priest;"


Changes its color, from redness, which is in raw flesh.


"And be changed unto white": And does not look ruddy as flesh in common does, nor red and fiery, as raw and proud flesh, but is white, of the same color with the swelling or scab.


"He shall come unto the priest": Again, and show himself, even though he was before by him pronounced clean.


Leviticus 13:17 "And the priest shall see him: and, behold, [if] the plague be turned into white; then the priest shall pronounce [him] clean [that hath] the plague: he [is] clean."


Review him, and examine him thoroughly.


"And, behold, if the plague be turned into white": The raw flesh in the swelling, which looked red, is become white.


"Then the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague": That was supposed to have the plague of leprosy; but upon a review, and on this change of things, has not, he shall declare him free from it.


"He is clean": And under no obligation to the laws and rites concerning it.


This reminds me so much of what Paul did in the books of Corinthians. There was a terrible sin in the church, and Paul told them to remove the person who had sinned so badly. Then (in 2 Corinthians), after the person repented, Paul told the church to take him back into the fold.


Leviticus 13:18 "The flesh also, in which, [even] in the skin thereof, was a boil, and is healed,"


Or hot ulcer, by which, says Maimonides you may understand any stroke by a stone, stick, or iron, or any other thing. And in the Misnah, it is asked, what is an ulcer (or boil)? A stroke by wood, stone, pitch, or hot water. All that is from the force of fire is an ulcer.


"And is healed": By the use of medicine, and the part, in all appearance, as well and as sound as ever.


Leviticus 13:19 "And in the place of the boil there be a white rising, or a bright spot, white, and somewhat reddish, and it be showed to the priest;"


In the place where the boil was, a white swelling appears.


"Or a bright spot, white, and somewhat reddish": White and red mixed, as the Targum of Jonathan. and so Aben Ezra interprets the word "reddish", of the bright spot being mixed of two colors, or part of it so. And such a mixed color of white and red, Gersom observes, is usual in a swelling. And adds, we are taught how to judge of these appearances, according to a tradition from Moses. Which is this: take a cup full of milk, and put in it two drops of blood, and the color of it will be as the color of the bright spot, white and reddish. And if you put into it four drops, its color will be as the color of the rising (or swelling) reddish. And if you put into it eight drops, its color will be as the color of the scab of the bright spot, more reddish. And if you put into it sixteen drops, its color will be as the color of the scab of the swelling, very red. Hence it appears, says he, that the bright spot is whitest with its redness, and after that the swelling. And next the scab of the bright spot, and then the scab of the swelling. But Bochart is of opinion that the word is wrongly rendered "reddish". Which, he thinks, contradicts the account of the bright spot being white. And especially as the word for "reddish" has its radicals doubled, which always increase the signification. And therefore, if the word bears the sense of redness, it should be rendered "exceeding red". Which would be quite contrary to the spot being white at all. Wherefore from the use of the word in the Arabic language, which signifies white, bright, and glittering (see notes on Lam. 4:7). He chooses to read the words, "or a bright spot, white and exceeding glittering". But this word we render reddish and white, being read disjunctively (Lev. 13:24). Seems to contradict this observation of his.


"And it be shewed to the priest": To look upon and pass his judgment on it.


Leviticus Chapter 13 Questions


1. What 2 kinds of leprosy does this lesson deal with?


2. Explain the difference in the 2.


3. Who did the Lord give these instructions to?


4. What do the Scriptures describe as being like leprosy?


5. Who should a person suspected of leprosy be brought to?


6. If this is just speaking of physical leprosy, why do they not take the patient to a _____________?


7. For what reason was the new raw sore examined?


8. Who pronounced the person clean or unclean?


9. Leprosy is a disease of the ________.


10. How many days was the person to be shut up, before determining whether he is clean or not?


11. What does the number 7 mean?


12. Why did Aaron and his sons have to wait 7 days at the door of the sanctuary?


13. Explain the similarity of the time Aaron waited, and the time the person suspected of leprosy waited.


14. In what way does the 14 day wait resemble Christianity?


15. What makes the person whole?


16. Leviticus 13:7 describes what?


17. How can you compare chronic disease to sin?


18. What does chronic leprosy, or habitual sin, do to the face?


19. The only help for someone full of sin, or leprosy, is what?


20. When is leprosy contagious?


21. What is a task of the leader of the church, that none of them enjoy?


22. Who in the New Testament, dealt with the same sin 2 different ways?


23. How did this happen?




Leviticus Chapter 13 Continued

We will continue on with the leper from the last lesson. We had decided that this is not only speaking of a physical disease but spiritual, as well.


Leviticus 13:20 "And if, when the priest seeth it, behold, it [be] in sight lower than the skin, and the hair thereof be turned white; the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it [is] a plague of leprosy broken out of the boil."


And has thoroughly viewed it and considered it.


"Behold, it be in sight lower than the skin": Having eaten into and taken root in the flesh under the skin.


"And the hair thereof be turned white": Which are the signs of leprosy before given (Lev. 13:3).


"The priest shall pronounce him unclean": Not fit for company and conversation, but obliged to conform to the laws concerning leprosy.


"It is a plague of leprosy broken out of the boil": Which was there before. This is an emblem of apostates and apostasy, who having been seemingly healed and cleansed, return to their former course of life. And to all the impurity of it, like the dog to its vomit, and the swine to its wallowing in the mire (Prov. 26:11). And so their last state is worse than the first (Matt. 12:45). As in this case; at first it was a boil, and then thought to be cured, and afterwards arises out of it a plague of leprosy.


We have been discussing the similarity between leprosy as a disease, and sin. Sin is spoken of as corruption. This is always a repulsive thing. The examining of this by the high priest is like the leader of the church examining the actions of someone who has erred. Was the thing they did in ignorance, was it a sin done with no intent of harm, or was it a sin from within? If this sin was a sin formed in the inside of man, then we see the worst kind of sin. This type sin, would separate the person from the flock. The leader of the church must decide which type of transgression this is. Is the sin to be forgiven and just go on, should there be some kind of restitution to the offended, or should the sinner be cut off from the flock?


Leviticus 13:21 "But if the priest look on it, and, behold, [there be] no white hairs therein, and [if] it [be] not lower than the skin, but [be] somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:"


Upon a person in a like case as first described, having had a boil, and that healed, and afterwards a white swelling, or a bright spot in the place of it.


"And, behold, there be no white hairs therein": Not two hairs turned white, as Gersom interprets it.


"And if it be not lower than the skin": The bright spot not lower than the skin; not having got into the flesh, only skin deep. The Targum of Jonathan is, not lower in whiteness than the skin. For the bright spot is described as white, and so the rising or swelling (Lev. 13:19).


"But be somewhat dark": Or rather "contracted"; to which spreading is opposed in the next verse (see notes on Lev. 13:6).


"Then the priest shall shut him up seven days": To wait and see whether it will spread or not. A boil and burning, the Jews say, make a man unclean in one week, and by two signs, the white hair, and the spreading. By the white hair, both at the beginning and at the end of the week after dismissal, and by spreading at the end of the week after it.


To look at this spiritually, this would be like the head of the church, telling the sinner to make restitution to the person wronged and come back to the church. The head of the church would then decide whether this person is truly repentant, and whether he would recommend him being brought back in as a member of the church.


Leviticus 13:22 "And if it spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it [is] a plague."


Upon viewing it on the seventh day, though it is not expressed, the swelling or bright spot; or "in spreading spread" (see notes on Lev. 13:7). Which Ben Gersom interprets, not of the skin of the flesh, but of the ulcer.


"Then the priest shall pronounce him unclean": Even though there are no white hairs in it, nor is it lower than the skin, yet is not at a stand or contracted, but spreading.


"It is a plague": Or stroke. It is one sort of a leprosy, and such a one as makes a man unclean in a ceremonial sense.


Leprosy is probably the most dreaded disease. In some cases, great portions of flesh fall off. This is the description of rampant sin as well. Especially when it sweeps through a church. The head of the church has to remove a habitual sinner from the membership to keep the sin from overwhelming the other members.


Leviticus 13:23 "But if the bright spot stay in his place, [and] spread not, it [is] a burning boil; and the priest shall pronounce him clean."


Continues as it was when first viewed.


"It is a burning boil": But not a plague of leprosy.


"And the priest shall pronounce him clean": As clear of a leprosy, and so not bound by the law of it, though attended with an inflammation or burning ulcer.


Sometimes a person is accused of sin, when they are not guilty. The head of the church has to decide, whether this just looks like sin on the surface, or if this is really sin. Just because a person is accused of sin is not enough, there must be proof for the head of the church to move upon it.


Leviticus 13:24 "Or if there be [any] flesh, in the skin whereof [there is] a hot burning, and the quick [flesh] that burneth have a white bright spot, somewhat reddish, or white;"


Or "a burning of fire": It is asked, what is a burning? That which is burnt with a coal or with hot ashes; all that is from the force of fire is burning. That is, whatever sore, pustule, or blister, is occasioned by fire touching the part, or by anything heated by fire.


"And the quick flesh that burneth have a white bright spot, somewhat reddish, or white": The Targum of Jonathan is, a white spot mixed with red, or only white. And so Aben Ezra interprets the last clause: this seems to set aside Bochart's interpretation of the word "adamdemeth", which we render "somewhat reddish". And be, very white, bright, and glittering since white is here opposed unto it. Though it may be, the sense is, that the flesh burnt has a bright white spot in it, exceeding glittering. Or however, at least, a white one. By the "quick flesh" that burneth. Gersom says, is meant the weak, the tender flesh which is renewed there, after it is healed from the purulent matter in it.


Leviticus 13:25 "Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, [if] the hair in the bright spot be turned white, and it [be in] sight deeper than the skin; it [is] a leprosy broken out of the burning: wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it [is] the plague of leprosy."


And examine it, whether it has the marks and signs of a leprosy or not, such as follows.


"Behold, if the hair in the bright spot be turned white": Which before was black, or of another color from white. And is now, turned into the whiteness of chalk, as the Targum of Jonathan.


"And it be in sight deeper than the skin": The same Targum is, "and its sight or color is deeper in being white like snow, more than the skin". But this respects not the color of it, as appearing to the sight, but the depth of the spot, going below the skin into the flesh. Which, with the change of hair, are the two signs of leprosy (Lev. 13:3).


"It is a leprosy broken out of the burning": Which sprung from there, and what that had issued in.


"Wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean": A leper, and to be treated as such.


"It is the plague of leprosy": Being a plain case, according to the rules by which it was to be judged of.


This sin mentioned here is more than skin deep. This is something very serious in nature. Christians, whose desire of their heart is to do right, will not have sin imputed to them.


1 John 2:1-2 "My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:" "And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for [the sins of] the whole world."


Habitual sin is a sin of the heart, and Jesus will not take care of habitual sin for us. The sickness has gone too deep when the sin is habitual.


Hebrews 6:4-6 "For [it is] impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost," "And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come," "If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put [him] to an open shame."


The Scripture (in Hebrews chapter 6), and the (Scripture above in Leviticus), where the person is declared unclean, are both speaking of someone who habitually sins after they have been saved.


Leviticus 13:26 "But if the priest look on it, and, behold, [there be] no white hair in the bright spot, and it [be] no lower than the [other] skin, but [be] somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:"


On the hot burning and bright spot in it, in another person.


"And, behold, there be no white hair on the white spot, and it be no lower than the other skin": Why the word "other" should be supplied I know not, any more than in (Lev. 13:21).


"But be somewhat dark": Or "contracted" (see notes on Lev. 13:21).


"Then the priest shall shut him up seven days": As in the case of the burning boil or hot ulcer, as in (Lev. 13:21).


Leviticus 13:27 "And the priest shall look upon him the seventh day: [and] if it be spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it [is] the plague of leprosy."


When that is come, any time on that day; not needing to wait until the end of it, or till, the seven days are precisely up. The same is to be understood in all places in this chapter where the like is used.


"And if it be spread much abroad in the skin": In the space of seven days.


"Then the priest shall pronounce him unclean": It is the plague of leprosy: according to the law. So that it was necessary, in such a case for him to conform to it in order to his cleansing.


Leprosy in the beginning, is a hidden disease. Sometimes the first indication that a person had it, would be a harmless looking little bump would surface. Many times, for literally years, that would be all you would see. Then when you least expect it, the thing would burst into a full blown sore. Sin is sometimes hidden for a long time, then all of a sudden, it will show its ugly face. We may hide our sin from the world, but the great High Priest (Jesus), knows all about our sin, and some time we will have to stand before Him and be judged.


Leviticus 13:28 "And if the bright spot stay in his place, [and] spread not in the skin, but it [be] somewhat dark; it [is] a rising of the burning, and the priest shall pronounce him clean: for it [is] an inflammation of the burning."


If, after being shut up, seven days, it appears that the spot is no larger than when it was first viewed, but is as it was, and not at all increased.


"But it be somewhat dark": Either not so bright as it was, or more contracted.


"It is a rising of the burning": Or a swelling of it, a swelling which sprung from it, and nothing else.


"The priest shall pronounce him clean": From the leprosy, and so set him at liberty to go where he will, and dwell and converse with men as usual.


"For it is an inflammation of the burning": Or an inflammation or blister occasioned by the burning, and no leprosy.


We can see here very clearly, that the High Priest is the final Judge. He is the only one that can declare us saved or unsaved. Many professing Christians will be surprised, when He says get away from me I never knew you (as in Matt. 7:23).


Leviticus 13:29 "If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard;"


Any breaking out in those parts a swelling, scab, or spot, on a man's beard or on a woman's head. Or on the head of either man or woman. Or on a woman's beard, if she had any, as some have had, though not common.


Leviticus 13:30 "Then the priest shall see the plague: and, behold, if it [be] in sight deeper than the skin; [and there be] in it a yellow thin hair; then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it [is] a dry scall, [even] a leprosy upon the head or beard."


The person on whom it is shall come or be brought unto him; and he shall look upon it and examine it.


"And, behold, if it be in sight deeper than the skin": Which is always one sign of leprosy.


"And there be in it a yellow thin hair": Like the appearance of thin gold, as the Targum of Jonathan. For, as Ben Gersom says, its color is the color of gold; and it is called thin in this place, because short and soft, and not when it is long and small. And so it is said, scabs make unclean in two weeks, and by two signs, by thin yellow hair, and by spreading. By yellow hair, small, soft, and short. Now this is to be understood, not of hair that is naturally of a yellow or gold color, as is the hair of the head and beard of some persons. But of hair changed into this color through the force of the disease. And so Jarchi interprets it, black hair turned yellow. In other parts of the body, hair turned white was a sign of leprosy, but here that which was turned yellow or golden colored. Aben Ezra observes, that the color expressed by this word is, in the Ishmaelitish or Arabic language, the next to the white color.


"Then the priest shall pronounce him unclean": Declare him a leper, and unfit for company, and order him to do and have done for him the things after expressed, as required in such a case.


"It is a dry scall": Or "wound", as the Septuagint version; "nethek", which is the word here used. Jarchi says, is the name of a plague that is in the place of hair, or where that grows. It has its name from plucking up. For there the hair is plucked away, as Aben Ezra and Ben Gersom note.


"Even a leprosy upon the head or beard": As the head is the seat of knowledge, and the beard a sign of manhood, and of a man's being arrived to years of discretion. When wisdom and prudence are expected in him. This sort of leprosy may be an emblem of errors in judgment, of false doctrines and heresies imbibed by persons, which eat as does a canker. And are in themselves damnable, and bring ruin and destruction on teachers and hearers, unless recovered from them by the grace of God.


The primary difference in this case, is that the hair turns yellowish red, rather than white. Looking at this from the spiritual standpoint, we could see in the beard; age, or someone who has been a believer for a long time. The head could possibly mean someone of authority in the church. Judgement begins at the house of God. In the verse above, it appears to me that the person did not come to the high priest to be examined, but the high priest noticed this problem and mentioned it. Again, this is a deep-seated sin, because it was deeper than the flesh.


Leviticus 13:31 "And if the priest look on the plague of the scall, and, behold, it [be] not in sight deeper than the skin, and [that there is] no black hair in it; then the priest shall shut up [him that hath] the plague of the scall seven days:"


As it may appear in another person, brought to him for inspection and examination.


"And, behold, it be not in the sight deeper than the skin. It does not seem to be got into the flesh, or lower than the skin.


"And that there is no black hair in it": Or, "but no black hair in it". For, as Jarchi says, if there was a black hair in it, he would be clean, and there would be no need of shutting up. For black hair in scalls is a sign of cleanness, as it is said (Lev. 13:37). It would be a clear case that such a man had no leprosy on him. For black hair is a token of a strong and healthful constitution. And there could remain no doubt about it, and it would require no further trial and examination. Ben Gersom says it means two black hairs; and further observes, that black hair in the midst of a scall is a sign of cleanness; but this being wanting.


"Then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days": From the time of his viewing the scall; and so Ben Gersom, this is the seventh day from the time of looking upon the scall.


This must be proven beyond a shadow of a doubt, if this is an elder or leader who has been accused.


1 Timothy 5:19 "Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses."


This has to be proven beyond a shadow of doubt.


Leviticus 13:32 "And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the plague: and, behold, [if] the scall spread not, and there be in it no yellow hair, and the scall [be] not in sight deeper than the skin;"


To see whether it has got any deeper, or spread any further, and has any hair growing in it. And of what color, that he might be also able to judge whether it was a leprosy or not.


"And, behold, if the scall spread not": Was neither gotten into the flesh, nor larger in the skin.


"And there be in it no yellow hair": That is, a thin yellow hair, for such only, as Ben Gersom observes, was a sign of leprosy in scalls (as in Lev. 13:30). And the same writer observes, that "and" is here instead of "or", and to be read, "or there be in it no yellow hair". Since a scall was pronounced unclean, either on account of thin yellow hair, or on account of spreading.


"And the scall be not in sight deeper than the skin": But be just as it was when first looked upon.


Leviticus 13:33 "He shall be shaven, but the scall shall he not shave; and the priest shall shut up [him that hath] the scall seven days more:"


His head or beard, where the scall was, as Aben Ezra. And so, Ben Gersom, who adds, the law is not solicitous whether this shaving is by a priest or not; so it seems any one might shave him.


"But the scall shall he not shave": That is, the hair that is in it, but that was to continue and grow, that the color of it might be easily discerned at the end of seven other days. According to the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan, he was to shave round about it, but not that itself. Jarchi says, he was to leave two hairs near it, that he might know whether it spread. For if it spread it would go over the hairs, and into the part that was shaven. When it would be a clear case it was a spreading leprosy. Now, that there might be an opportunity of observing this, whether it would or not, the following method was to be taken.


"And the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more": By which time it would be seen whether there was any increase or decrease, or whether at a standstill. And of what color the hair was, by which judgment might be made of the case.


Judgement of sin many times must be postponed until all the facts are in and the accused has a chance to defend himself. This being shaven could have a number of implications. It could be that even the very appearance of evil was to be removed. The shaving of the head could also be a momentary loss of authority, until the accusation died down. The seven still means spiritually complete. This waiting seven days here could also mean, until the church is satisfied there is no sin, only the appearance of sin. We are cautioned to not give even the appearance of evil. This would be doubly important for people in authority.


Leviticus 13:34 "And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the scall: and, behold, [if] the scall be not spread in the skin, nor [be] in sight deeper than the skin; then the priest shall pronounce him clean: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean."


That is, according to Ben Gersom, on the thirteenth day from the first inspection of him by the priest.


"And, behold, if the scall be not spread in the skin, nor be in sight deeper than the skin": Neither appears spread on the surface of the skin, nor to have eaten into the flesh under it. Also, no thin yellow hair, though it is not expressed, for that made a person unclean, though there was no spreading.


"Then the priest shall pronounce him clean; free from leprosy.


"And he shall wash his clothes, and be clean": There was no need to say he shall wash them in water, as Aben Ezra observes, that is supposed. And then he was looked upon as a clean person, and might go into the sanctuary, and have conversation with men, both in a civil and religious way, and not defile anything he sat upon.


This is a reprieve. The cleanliness of this leader is because the robe has been washed in the blood of the Lamb and made every whit whole. Sometimes, just for appearances sake, the person might be re-baptized.


Leviticus Chapter 13 Continued Questions


1. What 2 kinds of disease have we decided these lessons on leprosy are about?


2. What does the statement (lower than the skin indicate)?


3. What is sometimes called corruption?


4. When someone is accused of sin in the church, what 3 ways will the leader judge the sin?


5. Which one is the worst kind of sin?


6. What are the three punishments for the three transgressions?


7. How long shall the priest shut him up for, if the priest is not certain of his leprosy?


8. What is probably the most dreaded disease?


9. What is one of the terrible things that might happen to a leper in the last stages of leprosy.


10. What does the head of a church have to do to a habitual leper?


11. Why must that be done?


12. Sometimes a person is accused of sin, when they are not _______.


13. A person cannot be thrown out of the church on hearsay, what must happen first?


14. The sin in verse 24 and 25 is more than _____ _____.


15. Who will not have sin imputed to them?


16. Who is the Christian's advocate with the Father?


17. What is habitual sin?


18. What do we learn from Hebrews chapter 6 about habitual sin?


19. Leprosy, in the beginning, is a ________ disease.


20. We may hide our sin from the world, but who always knows?


21. Who is the great High Priest who will eventually judge all?


22. Who declares everyone either saved, or unsaved?


23. What does a beard mean symbolically?


24. What does the head mean symbolically?


25. Where does judgement begin?


26. What does first Timothy 5:19 teach us?


27. Why does judgement need to be postponed sometimes?


28. What things could the shaving of the head mean?


29. What would be doubly important for the leaders of the church to do?




Leviticus Chapter 13 Second Continued

In the last few lessons, we have been studying about leprosy and its spiritual meaning (sin). We will pick up the lesson now in:


Leviticus 13:35 "But if the scall spread much in the skin after his cleansing;"


After he has been declared clean by the priest. For it was possible that it might spread after this, though so much precaution had been used, and so much time taken to observe it, with this (compare 2 Peter 1:9).


Leviticus 13:36 "Then the priest shall look on him: and, behold, if the scall be spread in the skin, the priest shall not seek for yellow hair; he [is] unclean."


Again, and which is no less than the fourth time. For notwithstanding his being pronounced clean, he was still subject to the inspection of the priest, if any alteration appeared.


"And, behold, if the scall be spread in the skin": Which was a certain sign of a leprosy.


"The priest shall not seek for yellow hair": Or be solicitous about that, whether there is any or not. For either one or the other of these signs were sufficient to determine the case.


"He is unclean": And so to be pronounced.


We decided in a previous lesson, that this is a leader of the church under accusation. The spreading in the skin means that whatever sin this is; it has become a habit. When sin takes a person over to the extent that the sin becomes a habit, the sinner's heart gets hardened, and they soon do not count anything they do sin. This would be pretty bad.


1 Timothy 4:2 "Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;"


This is the first step to total destruction.


Leviticus 13:37 "But if the scall be in his sight at a stay, and [that] there is black hair grown up therein; the scall is healed, he [is] clean: and the priest shall pronounce him clean."


If in a few days, or in a short space of time after this, it should appear that the scall is at a full stop, and does not spread any further at all.


"And that there is black hair grown up therein": Which is a sign of health and soundness, and so of purity. Yea, if it was green or red, so be it, it was not yellow, according to Jarchi, it was sufficient.


"The scall is healed": From whence it appears that it had been a leprous scall, but was now healed, an entire stop being put to the spread of it. And though yellow hairs might have appeared in it, yet, as Gersom observes, two black hairs having grown up in it, it was a clear case that the corruption of the blood had departed, and it had returned to its former state.


"He is clean, and the priest shall pronounce him clean": He was clean before, and is the reason why he pronounces him so. Wherefore it is not the sentence of the priest, but the truth of his case that makes him clean. Teaching, as Ainsworth observes, that the truth of a man's estate, discerned by the word and law of God, made the man clean or unclean, and not the sentence of the priest, if it swerved from the law.


This person has really repented and turned away from sin. Just as new life (black Hair), has come up inside of this sore, new life has been rekindled in this sinner's heart. The fact that this sore is not spreading shows that this person is no longer practicing this sin. The sin is not spreading. The church leader, in this case would say, He is forgiven. Let us take him back into the fold.


Leviticus 13:38 "If a man also or a woman have in the skin of their flesh bright spots, [even] white bright spots;"


One or the other, for the law concerning leprosy respected both.


"Have in the skin of their flesh bright spots": And them only; not any rising or swelling, nor scab, nor scall, nor boil, nor burning, only bright spots, a sort of freckles or blemish.


"Even white bright spots": These, Ben Gersom observes, are white spots, but not plagues. And which were in whiteness inferior to the four species of the plague of leprosy, the white spot, the white swelling, and the scab of each.


Leviticus 13:39 "Then the priest shall look: and, behold, [if] the bright spots in the skin of their flesh [be] darkish white; it [is] a freckled spot [that] groweth in the skin; he [is] clean."


Upon the man or woman that has these spots, and upon the spots themselves, and examine them of what kind they are.


"And, behold, if the bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white": Their whiteness is not strong, as Jarchi observes; but dusky and obscure, or "contracted". Small white spots, not large and spreading.


"It is a freckled spot that grows in the skin": A kind of blemish, which the above writer describes as a sort of whiteness which appears in the flesh of a ruddy man.


"He is clean": From leprosy. This is observed, lest a person that is freckled and has a blemish should be mistaken for a leprous person. As every man that has some spots, failings, and infirmities, is not to be reckoned a wicked man.


Since the people are more likely to have leprosy who live in a desert area, where there is much sunshine, it is not unusual for someone to be freckled. Again in this, the person may appear to sin, but on closer examination, they are not sinning.


Leviticus 13:40 "And the man whose hair is fallen off his head, he [is] bald; [yet is] he clean."


That is, from the back part of his head, from the crown of his head toward his neck behind.


"He is bald": In that spot of the head where the hair is fallen off. And it denotes such a baldness as is occasioned by that. For it signifies one that had hair, but it is fallen off. Whereas the baldness after spoken of is thought by some to be of such who never had any hair. Though others will have it, that this intends a person bald all over. But it seems plain from what follows, that it designs one whose hair was fallen off behind, and was bald on that part only. And it may be observed, that this is only said of a man, not of a woman. Because, as Aben Ezra remarks, she has much moisture in her, and therefore her head does not become bald. Hair being like grass, which flourishes in moist places.


"Yet is he clean": From the leprosy, or from the scalls, as Jarchi observes. Because he is not judged by the signs of the head and beard, which are the place of hair. But by the signs of leprosy in the skin of the flesh, i.e. by the raw flesh and spreading.


Leviticus 13:41 "And he that hath his hair fallen off from the part of his head toward his face, he [is] forehead bald: [yet is] he clean."


That is, from the crown of his head towards his forehead and temples, the fore part of his head. And so the Misnic doctors distinguish baldness, which is from the crown of the head descending behind to the channel of the neck. And that here mentioned, which is from the crown of the head descending to his face and forehead, over against the hair above.


"He is forehead bald": To distinguish him from him that is bald behind.


"Yet is he clean": As the other: these cases are observed, that it might not be concluded that every man that shed his hair or was bald either before or behind was a leper, because the hair of a leper used to fall off from him. If he had not the other signs of leprosy, and which were the sure and true signs of it before mentioned.


Baldness is not a sign of leprosy. Baldness on a man's head is hereditary. If your father was bald, then you will be bald in all probability. Baldness was not common among the Israelites, and for a man to be bald, would make himself suspect.


2 Kings 2:23 "And he went up from thence unto Beth-el: and as he was going up by the way, there came forth little children out of the city, and mocked him, and said unto him, Go up, thou bald head; go up, thou bald head."


We see from this Scripture in Kings, that it was certainly not something someone wanted. He was laughed at for having a bald head. From the spiritual sense, we could say that the person this symbolizes perhaps, has some superficial habit that is not pleasing to others, but yet is not sin. Perhaps, this person thinks about things that are not in his best interest. More than sin, we would call these blemishes in their character.


Leviticus 13:42 "And if there be in the bald head, or bald forehead, a white reddish sore; it [is] a leprosy sprung up in his bald head, or his bald forehead.


Or, "but if there be", or, "when there shall be", or shall appear to be.


"In the bald head, or in the bald forehead, a white reddish sore": White and red mixed, as the Targum of Jonathan. Having something of both colors, neither a clear white nor thorough red. Though, according to Bochart, it should be rendered "a white sore exceeding bright" (see notes on Lev. 13:19).


"It is a leprosy sprung up in his bald head, or in his bald forehead": The signs of which were raw flesh and spreading. So it is said in the Misnah, "those two sorts of baldness defile in two weeks, by two signs, by quick raw flesh and by spreading." If there was the bright spot and no quick flesh, then he was to be shut up seven days, and looked upon at the end of them. And if there was either quick flesh or a spreading, he was pronounced unclean. But if neither, he was shut up seven days more. And if either of the above signs appeared he was pronounced unclean, if not he was set free.


Leviticus 13:43 "Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, [if] the rising of the sore [be] white reddish in his bald head, or in his bald forehead, as the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh;"


The white reddish sore.


"And, behold, if the rising of the sore": Or the swelling of it.


"Be white reddish in his bald head, or in his bald forehead" (see notes on Lev. 13:42).


"As the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh": As (in Lev. 13:2); having the signs of the leprosy there given. Anyone of them, excepting the white hair, which in this case could be no sign, there being none. Jarchi's note is, according to the appearance of the leprosy (said in Lev. 13:2). And what is said in it is, it defiles by four appearances, and is judged in two weeks. But not according to the appearance of the leprosy said of the boil, and burning, which were judged in one week. Nor according to the appearance of the scalls, of the place of hair, which do not defile by the four appearances, the rising or swelling, and the scab of it, the bright spot, and the scab of that.


Leviticus 13:44 "He is a leprous man, he [is] unclean: the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean; his plague [is] in his head."


And so to be pronounced and accounted. Only a leprous man is mentioned, there being no leprous women, having this sort of leprosy. Their hair not falling off, or they becoming bald.


"The priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean": As in any other case of leprosy.


"His plague is in his head": An emblem of such who have imbibed bad notions and erroneous principles. And are therefore, like the leper, to be avoided and rejected from the communion of the saints (Titus 3:10). And shows that men are accountable for their principles as well as practices, and liable to be punished for them.


The beginning of sin is in the mind. Evil thoughts bring evil deeds. A person who looks at pornography, will eventually do some of the things they fantasize while reading this filthy literature. This pronouncing this man unclean, it seems, is even more serious. He is pronounced not just unclean, but utterly unclean. To me, this sin would be some sort of perversion. Our society is sick in their minds. They have watched X-rated, R-rated, and even P. G. rated movies and television, until it has perverted their thinking. The horrible rock music has planted down deep all sorts of lyrics that encourage sin. This person can see no wrong in any of these things. Remember, anything your eyes see, and anything your ears hear, becomes a part of you. It is recorded in that little thing we call a brain. Look at the following Scripture that lets us know we are in control of what goes into our mind.


1 Peter 1:13 "Wherefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ;"


My suggestion to all is, to guard your mind carefully. Turn off any movie or T.V. program that has bad language, or has explicit sex scenes. Or, in fact, any of them that do not teach good moral character. Read 2nd Timothy chapter 3 to tell what time element we are living in now. This person with this sickness, is so sick, that they call good evil and evil good. I really believe Matthew says it the best.


Matthew 6:23 "But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great [is] that darkness!"


This then is a sin that began in the imagination of man, and became a horrible sin. The following tells how God feels about perverted minds.


Romans 1:28 "And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;"


Verses 45-46: A "leper" was not allowed to live in "the camp". The law demanded that anyone with this disease must be removed from the general population and cry, "Unclean, unclean so that others could avoid him or her. The sadness of those who suffered in this way was incalculable.


Leviticus 13:45″ And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean."


"Unclean, Unclean": Here are the symbols of grief and isolation. This same cry is heard from the survivors of Jerusalem's destruction (compare Lam. 4:15).


Leviticus 13:46 "All the days wherein the plague [shall be] in him he shall be defiled; he [is] unclean: he shall dwell alone; without the camp [shall] his habitation [be]."


Reckoned an unclean person, and avoided as such.


"He is unclean": In a ceremonial sense, and pronounced as such by the priest. And was to be looked upon as such by others during the time of his exclusion and separation, until he was shown to the priest and cleansed, and his offering offered.


"He shall dwell alone": In a separate house or apartment, as Uzziah did (2 Chron. 26:21). None were allowed to come near him, nor he to come near to any. Yea, according to Jarchi, other unclean persons might not dwell with him.


"Without the camp shall his habitation be": Without the three camps, as the same Jewish writer interprets it. The camp of God, the camp of the Levites, and the camp of Israel. So Miriam, when she was stricken with leprosy, was shut out of the camp seven days (Num. 12:14). This was observed while in the wilderness. But when the Israelites came to inhabit towns and cities, then lepers were excluded from there. For they defiled, in a ceremonial sense, every person and thing in a house they came into, whether touched by them or not. So Bartenora observes, that if a leprous person goes into any house, all that is in the house is defiled, even what he does not touch. And that if he sits under a tree, and a clean person passes by, the clean person is defiled. And if he comes into a synagogue, they make a separate place for him ten hands high, and four cubits broad, and the leper goes in first, and comes out last. This law concerning lepers shows that impure and profane sinners are not to be admitted into the church of God. And that such who are in it, who appear to be so, are to be excluded from it. Communion is not to be had with them. And that such, unless they are cleansed by the grace of God, and the blood of Christ, shall not inherit the kingdom of heaven. For into that shall nothing enter that defiles, or makes an abomination, or a lie (see 1 Cor. 5:7; Rev. 21:27).


It would really be dangerous to associate with a person practicing this perversion. We become like those we are around and this would be a terrible thing to catch. Perversion produces perversion. The best thing to do, is to have nothing to do with that person. Even in our liberal society, perversion is against the law. You could get arrested and sent to jail. Certainly, in the eternal realm, God will not look the other way at this sort of sin. This will separate you from God and from true believers who want no part of this terrible sin.


Verses 47-59: Deals with garments worn by infected persons. In addition to serving as physicians, the priests also conducted the inspection for unclean garments and houses (14:33-53).


Leviticus 13:47 "The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in, [whether it be] a woollen garment, or a linen garment;"


Whether this sort of leprosy proceeded from natural causes, or was extraordinary and miraculous, and came immediately from the hand of God, and was peculiar to the Jews, and unknown to other nations, is a matter of question. The latter is generally asserted by the Hebrew writers, as Maimonides, Abraham Seba, and others. But others are of opinion, and Abarbinel among the Jews, that it might be by the contact or touch of a leprous person. Indeed, it must be owned, as a learned man observes, that the shirts and clothes of a leper must be equally infectious, and more so than any other communication with him. And the purulent matter which adheres thereunto must needs infect; such who put on their clothes.


"Whether it be a woollen garment or a linen garment": And, according to the Misnic doctors, only wool and linen were defiled by leprosy. Aben Ezra indeed says, that the reason why no mention is made of silk and cotton is because the Scripture speaks of what was found then in use as (in Exodus 23:5). Wherefore, according to him, woollen and linen are put for all other garments.


Leviticus 13:48 "Whether [it be] in the warp, or woof; of linen, or of woollen; whether in a skin, or in any thing made of skin;"


When these are woven and mixed together, it seems difficult, if not impossible, to judge whether the plague of leprosy was in the one or in the other. One would think it should be unavoidably in both. Wherefore Castalio renders the words, whether "in the outer part of it, or in the inner". In the outside or inside, or what we call the right side or the wrong side of the cloth. But to me it seems that the warp and woof, whether of linen or woollen, are here distinguished not only from garments made of them, but from the cloth itself, of which they are made. And even to be considered before they are wrought together in the loom. And, according to the Jews, when upon the spindle.


"Whether in a skin, or anything made of skin": That is, whether in unwrought skin, which is not made up in anything, or in anything that is made of skins, as tents, bottles, etc. But skins of fishes, according to the Jewish traditions, are excepted. For so they say, sea skins, i.e. skins of fishes, are not defiled by plagues (of leprosy). For which the commentators give this reason, that as wool and linen are of things which grow out of the earth, so must the skins be. That is, of such animals as live by grass, that springs out of the earth. But if anything was joined unto them, which grew out of the earth, though but a thread, that received uncleanness, it was defiled.


Leviticus 13:49 "And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it [is] a plague of leprosy, and shall be showed unto the priest:"


Either of these two colors were signs of leprosy in garments. But it is not agreed whether stronger or weaker colors are designed. The radicals of both these words being doubled, according to some, and particularly Aben Ezra, lessen the sense of them. And so our translators understand it. But, according to Ben Gersom, the signification is increased thereby, and the meaning is, if it be exceeding green or exceeding red. And this is evidently the sense of the Misnah; garments are defiled by green in greens, and by red in reds, that is, by the greenest and reddest. The green, the commentators say, is like that of the wings of peacocks and leaves of palm trees, and the red like crimson or scarlet. And now these garments or skins, in which the green or red spots appeared, must be white, and not colored or dyed. The canon runs thus; skins and garments dyed are not defiled with plagues (of leprosy). A garment whose warp is dyed, and its woof white, or its woof dyed, and its warp white, all goes according to the sight. That is, according to what color to the eye most prevails, whether white or dyed.


"Either in the warp or in the woof, or in anything of the skin": The same held good of these as of a garment, or anything else made of them.


"It is a plague of leprosy": It has the signs of one, and gives great suspicion that it is one.


"And shall be shewed unto the priest": By the person in whose possession it is, that it may be examined and judged of whether it is a leprosy or not.


We know that when we are free from sin, we wear a robe of linen, washed in the blood of the Lamb.


Jude 1:23 "And others save with fear, pulling [them] out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted by the flesh."


The Scripture in Jude here, shows what soils the garment. It is the flesh. The flesh of man causes him to sin. In the Scriptures above from Leviticus, and this one from Jude, we see that it does not matter how fine and expensive the clothing is, it can be contaminated by the evil person wearing it. All of the materials mentioned above are materials of some sort or the other, but the only garment that makes you and me acceptable before God, is the white linen garment of the righteous. This white linen garment has been washed in the blood of the Lord Jesus Christ (the Lamb), and has become whiter than snow.


To sum up this lesson today, we would see the importance of the cleansing of our thoughts. The mind is evil, before it is cleansed by Jesus. In fact, the mind is spoken of as the enemy of God.


Romans 8:7 "Because the carnal mind [is] enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be."


The carnal mind is a mind that is constantly thinking of things of the earth. To be what Jesus would have us to be, we must crucify the desires of the flesh and the carnal mind, and let Jesus come inside of us and live through us.


Galatians 2:20 "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me."


The final statement is to have the mind of Christ.


1 Corinthians 2:16 " For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ."


The we, that have the mind of Christ, are the Christians.


Leviticus Chapter 13 Second Continued Questions


1. What is the spiritual meaning of leprosy?


2. What type of person are verses 35 and 36 telling about?


3. The spreading in the skin means what spiritually?


4. Where do we find the Scripture that says "Having their conscience seared with a hot iron"?


5. What is a sign that the man is clean in verse 37?


6. What is meant spiritually by the black hair growing?


7. The fact that the sore is not spreading shows what spiritually?


8. Describe a freckle spot.


9. Baldness is not a sign of __________.


10. In 2 Kings 2:23, how was this bald headed man treated?


11. More than sin, we would call baldness where there is no sore, what?


12. The beginning of sin is in the ____.


13. If a person watches pornography, what will happen to him?


14. The uncleanness of the bald man, who has a sore, is called one more word that shows perversion of the mind is terrible, what is it?


15. What are some of the things modern society is doing that causes a sick mind?


16. Anything you see, and anything you hear, becomes a _______ of _____.


17. Wherefore gird up the loins of your _______.


18. Where do we find the Scriptures that warn of the evil day we are living in?


19. We read that God turned them over to a ____________ mind, who did not retain God in their knowledge.


20. What would happen to a person who fellowshipped with someone who had a perverted mind?


21. What one word describes our uncleanness today?


22. When we are free from sin, what will our robe be made of?


23. What makes it white?


24. What soils the garment?


25. Besides our deeds, what must we clean up to please God?


26. The carnal mind is enmity against _____.


27. Who has the mind of Christ in them?




Leviticus Chapter 13 Third Continued

We have been studying in the last few lessons about leprosy.


Leviticus 13:50 "And the priest shall look upon the plague, and shut up [it that hath] the plague seven days:"


The green or red spot in the garment, etc.


"And shut up it that hath the plague seven days": The woollen or linen garment, the warp or the woof, or skins, and those things that were made of them.


We have discussed, over and over, that 7 stands for spiritual completeness. This period of time then is to see the truth about this person. Is this person truly a sinner as it appears, or is he a true believer?


Leviticus 13:51 "And he shall look on the plague on the seventh day: if the plague be spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in a skin, [or] in any work that is made of skin; the plague [is] a fretting leprosy; it [is] unclean."


To see whether there is any alteration in it in that space of time.


"If the plague be spread in the garment, either in the warp or in the woof, or in a skin, or in any work that is made of skin": The green and red spot be spread more and more in either of them. Whether the color remains the same or not, or be changed, the green into red, or the red into green. Yet if there was a spreading, it was a sign of leprosy. According to the Jewish canon, if the plague was green and spread red, or red and spread green, it was unclean. That is, as Bartenora explains it, if it was red in the size of a bean, and at the end of the week the red had spread itself to green. Or if at the beginning, it was green like a bean, and at the end of the week had spread itself to the size of a shekel, and the root or spread of it was become red.


"The plague is a fretting leprosy": According to Jarchi, a sharp and pricking one, like a thorn. Which signification the word has in (Ezek. 28:24). Ben Gersom explains it, which brings a curse, corruption, and oldness into the thing in which it is; an old "irritated, exasperated" leprosy. As Bochart, from the use of the word in the Arabic tongue, translates it.


"It is unclean": And the garment or thing in which it is.


The word fretting in this particular Scripture, means bitter, cause to embitter, or painful. From the spiritual standpoint, our garments that we wear could perhaps mean the immediate surroundings. Such as those of your own household, or those who live nearby. We sometimes become embittered by these very people that mean the most to us. Sometimes we cause them to be bitter as well. Nothing hurts as deeply as a loved one gone wrong. There are so many things that embitter us, or cause us to embitter others. We spoke of it in the previous lesson, but what we put into our brain affects our life. A person could get caught in a job that was not morally sound, and it could embitter them. I really believe the worst thing to embitter a person, to my recollection, has been people turned against the church because of hypocrites in the church. It seems the bitterness of this sort is the hardest to stop. Too many times we forget that the things we do might run someone away from God and make them bitter.


Leviticus 13:52 "He shall therefore burn that garment, whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or any thing of skin, wherein the plague is: for it [is] a fretting leprosy; it shall be burnt in the fire."


That there may be no more use of it, nor profit from it. And this was done without the city, as Ben Gersom asserts.


"Whether in warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or anything of skin, wherein the plague is". All and either of them were to be burnt.


"For it is a fretting leprosy" (see notes on Lev. 13:51).


"It shall be burnt in the fire": Which may teach both to hate the garment spotted with the flesh. And to put no trust in and have no dependence on a man's own righteousness. Which is as filthy rags, and both are such as shall be burnt, and the loss of them suffered, even when a man himself is saved, yet so as by fire (1 Cor. 3:15).


The sin of bitterness is possibly the hardest sin of all to get rid of. This I believe, is what intended by burning this up, so there will not be anything left to spring up again. Bitterness has even been known to cause crippling disease.


Hebrews 12:15 "Looking diligently lest any man fail of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble [you], and thereby many be defiled;"


Bitterness destroys the person who is bitter. Give it to Jesus, and let Him burn it out of your soul.


Leviticus 13:53 "And if the priest shall look, and, behold, the plague be not spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin;"


On the seventh day as before, after shutting up.


"And, behold, the plague be not spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in anything of skin": But is at an entire stay, that it may be hoped it is not a fretting leprosy. So, when men do not proceed to more ungodliness, as wicked men commonly do, but there is a stop put to their vicious life and conversation, it is a hopeful sign of future good.


Leviticus 13:54 "Then the priest shall command that they wash [the thing] wherein the plague [is], and he shall shut it up seven days more:"


The priest did not wash it himself, but ordered others to do it. And this was either the part in which the plague was, or the whole garment or skin in which it was. Which may be typical of the washing of the garments of men in the blood of Christ, which cleanses from all sin (Rev. 7:14).


"And he shall shut it up seven days more": The garment or skin in which the leprosy was, or suspected to be. To see what alteration would be made by that time through the washing. Whether the color would be altered, or whether it would spread any more or not.


This separation for the seven days is the same as in the other times it was mentioned. The separation is to see if the washing will be sufficient to remove this sin. We are told, if we have anything against anyone, to leave our gift and go and make it right and then come back and offer.


Matthew 5:24 "Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift."


It is a very dangerous thing to take communion with bitterness in our heart toward anyone.


1 Corinthians 11:27-30 "Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink [this] cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord." "But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of [that] bread, and drink of [that] cup." "For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body." "For this cause many [are] weak and sickly among you, and many sleep."


We can see from all this; how serious it is to hold a grudge.


Leviticus 13:55 "And the priest shall look on the plague, after that it is washed: and, behold, [if] the plague have not changed his color, and the plague be not spread; it [is] unclean; thou shalt burn it in the fire; it [is] fret inward, [whether] it [be] bare within or without."


That is, on the second seventh day, or thirteenth day from his first inspection of it.


"And, behold, if the plague has not changed its color": And the plague be not spread, it is unclean, thou shalt burn it in the fire. If it remains just as it was at first, very green or very red, and has not diminished of its color at all. Nor changed from one color to another, although it should not have spread itself, yet it is defiled, and to be burnt without the camp, as before. That which spreads itself here and there, it is to be burnt.


"It is after inward, whether it be bare within or without": That is, whether it be threadbare on the wrong or right side of the garment. The nap being eaten off by the leprosy; which shows it to be a fretting, eating, and corroding one. In the Hebrew text it is, "in the boldness of the hinder", or "in the baldness of the fore part". They are the same words which are used of the boldness of the back part and fore part of the head (Lev. 13:42). The nap being off either of the outer and right side of the cloth, or of the inner and wrong side, made it look like a bald head, whether before or behind.


The best way to say this, in the spiritual realm, is to say we must crucify our flesh that our spirit might live.


Galatians 5:24 "And they that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts."


Galatians 2:20 "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me."


This bitterness from within must be destroyed.


Leviticus 13:56 "And if the priest look, and, behold, the plague [be] somewhat dark after the washing of it; then he shall rend it out of the garment, or out of the skin, or out of the warp, or out of the woof:"


Is become of a weaker color, either not quite so green, or not quite so red as it was. Or is "contracted", and does not spread itself (see notes on Lev. 13:6); but is rather become less.


"Then he shall rend it out of the garment, or out of the skin, or out of the warp, or out of the woof": That is, that piece which has the plague in it, and burn it. As Jarchi says; that so the whole may not be lost, which is otherwise pure, and clean, and free from any infection. The manner of expression confirms what I have observed on (Lev. 13:48). That the warp and woof are considered as separate things, and as before they are woven together, or wrought into one garment. This rending out may denote the denying of ungodliness and worldly lusts. The parting with right eye and right hand sins, and having no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness.


The explanation of this can be found in Jesus' own words when He said, if a member of your body keep you from God, do away with it.


Matthew 5:29-30 "And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast [it] from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not [that] thy whole body should be cast into hell." "And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast [it] from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not [that] thy whole body should be cast into hell."


This seems so drastic, but we must not miss heaven at any cost.


Leviticus 13:57 "And if it appear still in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it [is] a spreading [plague]: thou shalt burn that wherein the plague [is] with fire."


After the piece has been rent out, in another part of the garment, etc. Where before it was not seen.


"It is a spreading plague": Or leprosy; a flourishing one, as the word signifies, a growing and increasing one.


"Thou shalt burn that wherein the plague is with fire": According to Aben Ezra, only that part in which the plague was. But Jarchi says the whole garment; with whom Ben Gersom seems to agree. Who reads the words, thou shall burn it, with that in which the plague is. The whole garment, skin, warp, or woof, along with the part in which the leprosy is.


I almost hate to comment on this. If all efforts fail, then they are lost. The fire of hell is the sure outcome of this individual.


Leviticus 13:58 "And the garment, either warp, or woof, or whatsoever thing of skin [it be], which thou shalt wash, if the plague be departed from them, then it shall be washed the second time, and shall be clean."


After it had been shut up seven days, and viewed by the priest again. If the plague be departed from them: upon a review of them.


"Then it shall be washed the second time, and shall be clean": And so reckoned even thoroughly clean, and used. This denotes the thorough washing and cleansing of sinners by the blood of Jesus (see Psalm 51:2). This washing was by dipping; and so the Targum renders it; and Jarchi observes, that all washings of garments, which are for dipping, they interpret by the same word.


This washing certainly has to do with the washing in the blood of the Lamb. We see in the Scriptures that it is by blood and water. Both are to be washed in, to be Jesus'.


1 John 5:6 "This is he that came by water and blood, [even] Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth."


We see in this, that baptism in water is not enough, we must be washed in the blood of the Lamb and made white as snow. This is when we repent (turn from our wicked ways), and begin a new life in Jesus. We receive His robe of righteousness when He takes our sin. We certainly get the best end of this trade.


Leviticus 13:59 "This [is] the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of woollen or linen, either in the warp, or woof, or any thing of skins, to pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean."


"To pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean": The primary purpose of this legislation was to assist the priest in determining the presence of contagious skin disease. The language of the passage indicates disease that affects the clothes as it did the person. This provided more illustrations of the devastating infection of sin and how essential cleansing was spiritually.


The main thing that we must remember in this, is that these garments symbolize the flesh of mankind. Our flesh is our worst enemy. The lust of our flesh is the cause of our sin. Sin is anything that displeases God, or the breaking of the law.


1 John 3:4 "Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law."


This is not just any law, but the law of God. God has given us a substitute for our sin, Jesus Christ the Righteous. It is our own fault if we wind up in hell. God made provision for us, but we must avail ourselves of it.


Leviticus Chapter 13 Third Continued Questions


1. How long is the one suspected of leprosy shut up?


2. What truth is trying to be determined by this time of separation?


3. What does the word fretting mean?


4. What is meant spiritually by the garments?


5. What is about the worst hurt that we feel?


6. What are some of the things that could happen to you and make you bitter?


7. Why are many people bitter toward the church?


8. What is to be done with a garment of fretting leprosy?


9. What does Hebrews 12:15 say about bitterness?


10. Who does bitterness destroy?


11. What is the washing in Leviticus 13:53 symbolic of?


12. What does Matthew 5:24 teach about bitterness?


13. What might happen to you, if you took communion with bitterness in your heart?


14. What does Leviticus 13:55 tell us we must do?


15. I am crucified with _________.


16. I live by the faith of the ______ ____ ______.


17. If thy right eye offend thee, _______ ___ _____.


18. If thy right hand offend thee, _____ ___ _____.


19. If all efforts fail to cleanse a person, then they are _______.


20. What did the 2 washings indicate?


21. How can we be washed in the blood of the Lamb?


22. What is the main thing to remember in this lesson?


23. What is our worst enemy?


24. What is the cause of our sin?


25. Sin is the transgression of the _____.


26. What law is this?


27. Who is our Substitute for our sin?





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Leviticus 14



Leviticus Chapter 14

Verses 1-57: The occasion on which a person was cured of his skin disease or leprosy was of considerable significance. It marked his unexpected restoration to fellowship with his family and the community as a whole, and brought him back into a relationship with God's sanctuary.


The reference to "two birds alive and clean" typified the renewed state of cleanness in the healed person. Clean animals were characteristic of the holy Israelites, who were exhorted continually to remain in this condition of body and mind. "One of the birds" [should] "be killed" ... and he "shall let the living bird loose into the open field" is symbolic of the new life for the cleansed leper.


He was to offer three unblemished lambs successively as a guilt offering, a sin offering, and a burnt offering. He now had to renew his relationship with the God of the covenant. The smearing of blood by the priest on the "right ear, thumb", and "great toe" was the same action taken (in Lev. 8:24), for the consecration of Aaron and his sons. The cleansed man should hear God's voice, should perform works of righteousness with his hands, and should walk in God's ways.


The tragedy of leprosy lay not so much in personal sin as in isolation from community life and worship. The real message of the legislation is that any type of uncleanness separates the believer from God. Leprosy is symbolic.


Leviticus 14:1 "And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,"


In order to deliver the same to Aaron, who, and the priests his successors, were chiefly to be concerned in the execution of the law given.


"Saying": As follows.


We see here a chain of command in this message being transferred from God, to Moses, to Aaron, to Aaron's sons, and then to the people.


Leviticus 14:2 "This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: He shall be brought unto the priest:"


"The law of the leper": The sense of this law is a prescription, not for healing from leprosy and other such diseases, but rather for the ceremonial cleansing, which needed to be performed after the person was declared clean.


"Leper ... brought unto the priest": In (Matt. 8:4 and Luke 17:14), Jesus is seen instructing healed lepers to follow God's law and go to the priest for appropriate ceremonies and offerings. In the present dispensation, those healed may go directly to Jesus our High-Priest with thanksgiving (Phil. 4:6).


As we said in a previous lesson, just being accused of leprosy, did not mean you had leprosy. Someone accused of sin is not always sinning either. This has to be judged by the priest, just as someone accused of sin, must be examined by the church. Notice this was the law and not just a request. If this has nothing to do with sin, tell me why he must come to the church? A person who is sick, does not have to sacrifice because they are sick, unless that sickness is spiritual.


Leviticus 14:3 "And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, [if] the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper;"


"Out of the camp": The leper was not allowed to return to society immediately. Before the person could enter the camp, some priest skilled in the diagnoses of disease needed to examine him and assist with the ritual of the two birds (verses 4-7).


This inspection is not to be made publicly before the congregation. We could take a lesson from this. Someone who is accused of sin, which should remove them from the body of believers, should not be questioned before all of the congregation. We will see from the following two Scriptures how important it was for any accusation to be backed up by two or three witnesses.


1 Timothy 5:19 "Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses."


Hebrews 10:28 "He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses:"


These eyewitnesses must bring the matter before the proper authorities, and they would decide the outcome. In verse 3 above, they are found to be clean (innocent). In the case above, they might have been declared unclean at first, but now they are clean. This could be someone innocent, or it could be someone forgiven, which is in essence the same thing.


Verses 4-7: The bundle of cedar and hyssop tied with scarlet included the living bird. It was all dipped 7 times into the blood of the killed bird mixed with water to symbolize purification. The bird was then set free to symbolize the leper's release from quarantine.


Leviticus 14:4 "Then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two birds alive [and] clean, and cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop:"


These objects provided symbolic cleansing for a person who had been healed of leprosy. "Cedar wood" was a durable and decay-resistant wood. A "scarlet" cord was probably used to tie the hyssop branch to the wood as a symbol of the sacrificial blood that brought victory over sin and death. "Hyssop" was an herb used for flavoring, fragrance and medicinal purposes.


It is very interesting that there is no definition of the word that was translated hyssop which is a wild shrub of uncertain identity whose twigs were used for sprinkling in ancient Jewish rites of purification. We can safely assume that this was a plant with some sort of foliage at the top. It was probably a bushy plant. The following 2 Scriptures will bear this out.


John 19:29 "Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put [it] upon hyssop, and put [it] to his mouth."


Hebrews 9:19 "For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book and all the people,"


There are ten more times the hyssop is mentioned and all of them mentioned that the top would have held enough liquid to use it as a spreader. Cedar wood has a very aromatic smell; it also is like an antiseptic. Scarlet is red and symbolizes blood. This piece of scarlet was used to bind the cedar wood and the hyssop together. This is an offering of purification. The two birds will have different fates. One will be killed, and one released.


Leviticus 14:5 "And the priest shall command that one of the birds be killed in an earthen vessel over running water:"


That is, shall command another priest to kill one of them, or an Israelite, as Aben Ezra. And who also observes, that some say the leper, or the butcher, as the Targum of Jonathan. The killing of this bird, not being a sacrifice, might be done without the camp, as it was, and not at the altar, near to which sacrifices were slain, and where they were offered. And this was to be done;


"In an earthen vessel over running water": This vessel, according to the Jewish traditions, was to be a new one, and a fourth part of a log of running water was to be put into it. And then the bird was to be killed over it, and its blood squeezed into it. And then a hole was dug, and it was buried before the leprous person. And so it should be rendered, "over an earthen vessel", as it is in the Tigurine version, and by Noldius. For how could it be killed in it, especially when water was in it? The killing of this bird may have respect to the sufferings, death, and bloodshed of Christ, which were necessary for the purging and cleansing of leprous sinners. And which were endured in his human nature, comparable to an earthen vessel, as a human body sometimes is (see 2 Cor. 4:7). For he was crucified through weakness, and was put to death in the flesh (2 Cor. 13:4). And the running or livi